Tuesday, November 26, 2019

The Need for Electricians is on the Rise

The Need for Electricians is on the Rise The end of the Great Recession is worthy of celebration for several reasons, but one group of tradespeople may have even more reason to rejoice than the rest of the population: electricians. Why? Because with the recession behind them and a construction boom imminent, they are positioned to be in great demand in the years ahead. Here’s what you need to know. There’s a reason he’s so happy.A Closer Look at the NumbersAccording to the United States Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics, the job outlook for electricians is expected to grow by a whopping 20 percent between 2012 and 2022. This significantly exceeds the average growth for all occupations.Why the increase? Jobs for electricians fluctuate based on the health of the overall economy. In times of stagnation and recession, demand for construction and maintenance drops leading to fewer jobs for these trained professionals.When the economy is healthy, however, the construction building and ma intenance industry thrives - meaning more jobs await those with the right training and qualifications.Not only that, but many older electricians turned to other types of work during the recession-era shortage. Their absence now leaves the door open to new workers in the field. Particularly with so much buzz surrounding the challenges of job seekers with bachelor’s degrees, the in-demand nature of electrical work makes it a more popular choice than ever.And considering that nearly every building has some form of electrical power, a building boom means terrific prospects for electricians.Not Just More Work, But Different WorkOther factors affecting the job market for electricians? Emerging technology related to alternative power generation - everything from solar to wind - will challenge electricians in new and exciting ways. From installation to linking these alternative sources of power to the grids, these responsibilities are expected to land with electricians, although g overnment policy may determine the extent to which employment opportunities occur.And while some manufacturing plants will shut down due to old or inefficient facilities, these closures should be outpaced by the installation and maintenance related to new manufacturing plants.What You Need to KnowElectricians require a high school diploma or its equivalent. Additionally, the majority of electricians learn the trade through a four to five year apprenticeship program, while others attend trade school. Nearly every state requires licensing before electricians can practice. This varies from state to state but typically includes a test on requirements related to electrical codes. What does it take to make it as an electrician? They typically have strong business, critical thinking, customer service, and troubleshooting skills.Because more and more people are becoming aware of the career promise in electrical work, the competition is stiff with hundreds of candidates applying for a handfu l of apprenticeships in certain regions. However, pursuing your goals despite the competition is largely regarded as worth it considering that many apprentices make more than many debt-burdened college grads: a median pay of just under $50,000 with the top earners making as much as $83,000.Even better? Ten percent of electricians are self-employed and can set their own hours.While the forecast for licensed electricians may not have looked sunny in the height of the recession, the current outlook is beyond bright - and more than reason enough to give this profession another look. Wondering about positions for electricians near you? Sign up for the innovative to get started.While the forecast for licensed electricians may not have looked sunny in the height of the recession, the current outlook is beyond bright - and more than reason enough to give this profession another look.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Unique March Holidays and Fun Ways to Celebrate Them

Unique March Holidays and Fun Ways to Celebrate Them Marchs signature holiday may be St. Patricks Day, but there are plenty of little-known holidays throughout the month. Unique holidays can be the most fun to celebrate. Add some fun learning opportunities to your school calendar this month by celebrating these unique March holidays. Dr. Seuss Day (March 2) Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, was born on March 2, 1904, in Springfield, Massachusetts. Dr. Seuss wrote dozens of classic children’s books, including  The Cat in the Hat, Green Eggs and Ham, and One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish Blue Fish. Celebrate his birthday with some of the following ideas: Use food coloring to enjoy a breakfast of green eggs and ham.The book  Green Eggs and Ham was written using only 50 words. Try writing a story of your own using those same 50 words.Throw a Dr. Seuss birthday party.Make Cat in the Hat cookies World Wildlife Day (March 3) Celebrate World Wildlife Day by learning more about the creatures that inhabit our world. Choose a unique animal to research. Use the library or online resources to discover facts such as where it lives; its habit; its life cycle and lifespan; what it eats; and what makes it unique.Visit a zoo, aquarium, nature preserve, or conservation center.Define the words endangered and extinct. Discover some examples of each and learn what steps we can take to help preserve endangered species. Oreo Cookie Day (March 6) Oreo, the best-selling cookie in the United States, consists of two chocolate cookies with a sweet, cream filling. The most obvious way to celebrate Oreo Cookie Day is to grab a handful of cookies and a glass of milk for a tasty treat. You might also try some of the following: Use Oreo cookies to demonstrate the phases of the moon.Learn about the history of Oreo cookies.Make Oreo truffles. Pi Day (March 14) Math lovers, rejoice! Pi Day is celebrated on March 14 – 3.14 – each year. Mark the day by: Answering the question,  what is pi?Reading  Sir Conference and the Dragon of Pi.Baking an actual pie.Doing something special – eat your pie, throw confetti – at 1:59 p.m. to reinforce the fact that the actual value of pi is 3.14159†¦ World Storytelling Day (March 20) World Storytelling Day celebrates the art of oral storytelling. Storytelling is much more than simply sharing facts. It’s weaving them into memorable tales that can be passed down from generation to generation. Check with your local library to see if they have lined up any special guests for World Storytelling Day.Invite your children’s grandparents to tell stories of their childhood. If the grandparents are stuck for ideas, try these storytelling suggestions.Allow each of your family members to try their hand at storytelling.Try some games to improve your storytelling technique. Poetry Day (March 21) Poems often trigger an emotional response, causing them to stay lodged in our memories for a lifetime. Writing poetry can be a wonderful emotional outlet. Try these ideas to celebrate Poetry Day: Learn about different types of poetry, such as  acrostic, Haiku, found poetry, couplets, etc.Try writing a few different types of poems.Choose a book or two of poetry to read from throughout the day.Illustrate your favorite poem.Try memorizing a new poem.Learn about a famous poet. Make Up Your Own Holiday Day (March 26) Can’t find a holiday to suit you? Make up your own! Turn it into a learning opportunity for your homeschooled students by inviting them to write a paragraph describing their made-up holiday. Be sure to  answer why and how it is celebrated. Then, commence celebrating! Pencil Day (March 30) Despite its obscure history, Pencil Day should be celebrated by homeschoolers worldwide  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ because who is better at losing pencils than we are? They disappear at an alarming rate rivaled only by single socks that disappear from the dryer. Celebrate Pencil Day by: Going on a search and rescue mission for all the missing pencils in your home.Learn about some notable pencil users.Make a pencil cake.Purchase pencils to donate to organizations who supply school supplies to needy children. These little-known holidays can add an air of festivity to each week throughout the month. Have fun!

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Contemporary British Drama Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Contemporary British Drama - Essay Example In terms of productivity and impact, we can say that since Shakespeare's time, no other historical period has produced more controversial, brilliant and self-reflected plays as the drama in the last century. Changes in British society affected, influenced and are reflected in the tendencies in the theater. As intellectuals, playwrights react to the social changes, political and economic conditions, to internal governmental conflicts and depict them in their plays. In this paper, I will attempt to demonstrate that British identity seen through the eyes of contemporary drama has become unconventional. In the plays "Feel Good" by Alistair Beaton and "In - Yer - Face Theatre" by Alek Sierz Britishness is explored to its minute details in shocking and unexpected revelations. The idea about Britain and British identity that I found most significant and which is conveyed through the above plays is the total and absolute honesty, which at times borders with our own innermost moral principles. The other idea that strikes me is that even though, the plays that I choose are comedies, they dwell on current reality and biting social and political issues feed both the dramatist and audiences imaginati on. The tendency of the British modern drama is to transform and modify essential theatrical elements like dialogue, set and characterization to extremes of parody, satire, exaggerations and deconstructions. Contemporary British drama is essential, because it is part of the cultural dialogue between intellectuals and the whole nation. Plays deliver ideas, not only about the British identity, but also about its self-presentation to the rest of the world. Modern, British playwrights investigate the subtle changes in the kingdom and its socio-political quests. The contemporary British drama is wittily celebrating the class changes and recent class identifications and the formation of a different elite class. The modern age gives the opportunity for playwrights to probe into the existential social anxieties and torment the British nation. The stage is like a mirror for the nation's identity and writers use their verbal and visual resources to describe what matters for their fellow-citizens. Many of the dramatics that successfully presented their plays in the 1970s and 1980s, still continue to actively produce remarkable intellectual masterpieces. Alistair Beaton is Scottish journalist with left wing political convictions. In the last two decades besides his media presentations he succeeded as a very productive novelist and playwright. In his play "Feel Good" Beaton creates an unprecedented political farce. This play is a comic revenge on New Labour spin and the government's grimness. Alistair Beaton's play is about the clandestine panic that underlies Labour's preoccupation with spin. In short, it is about money, though behind the play lurks a deeper point that the author wants to make. Although, it was made to be a comedy, this play is best understood through its current political reality. This is something that Beaton was aiming for. The play is set in a seaside hotel on the eve

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Strategic Financial Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Strategic Financial Management - Essay Example The operating margin and operating profit stood at 7.7% and  £115.6million respectively compared with 8.3% and  £111.3million respectively in the same period last year. The Company has taken on an extra five-year bank facility with Handelsbanken, hoping to increase their overall facilities to  £740 million (Yahoo Finance) Without profit, a firm would be unable to attract outside capital. That is why I identified the profitability ratios as the most efficient and effective way to evaluate the financial performance of the Wetherspoons Company. The profitability measures enable me to evaluate the company’s profits in relation to the level of assets, or owners’ investment as stipulated in the company’s financial statements. I looked into statements dating back from 2010 to 2014. I calculated Return on Capital Employed (RECE) by determining the ratio between the operating capital and the capital employed. This helped me know how well the firm utilizes the capital employed. In 2014, the Return on Capital Employed (RECE) for the company was 12.94%, as compared to 11.83% in 2013.It means that the company has had a steady increase on its return on capital employed thus showing that the Company keeps on improving its’ utilization of capital employed. To begin with, I established the Gross profit margin by determining the ratio between gross profit and net sales. The gross profit of the firm in 2014 was  £79.4m, compared to  £76.9m in 2013, which translates into a 3.1% increase in profit. This growth in gross profit margin serves as a good indicator that J D Wetherspoon firm is progressing well and promises good returns on investment. The decrease in the net profit margin of J D Wetherspoon can be attributed to external forces such as taxes. I established the assets turnover by determining the ratio between sales revenue and total assets to find out how efficiently J D Wetherspoon

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Computer Literacy Essay Example for Free

Computer Literacy Essay A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept data, process that data, produce results, and store the results for future use. Computers come in many different shapes and sizes. They can be found almost any and everywhere in the world, in the workplace and personal life. Using computers is a primary means of local and global communication. There are different categories of computers: personal, mobile, game consoles, servers, mainframes, supercomputers, and embedded computers. Each type has their own nique qualities and does different things. Personal computers are computers that can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself. They contain a processor, memory, and one or more input, output, and storage devices. They also contain a communications device. Two different types of a personal computer are desktop and notebook computers. Desktop computers usually have a monitor, system unit, and keyboard which is designed to be placed under one desk. Notebook computers are personal computers that are portable and designed to fit on our lap. On a regular notebook computer, the keyboard is on top of the sytem unit, and the display is attached to the system unit with hinges. They have all the same qualities of a desktop computer Just compact into a thin lightweight size. Mobile devices are also a types of computers. Different types are smartphones, PDAs, E-book Readers, MP3 and digital cameras. They often use memory cards to store programs and data permanently. These mobile devices are Internet-enabled, connecting them to the world. Because of the size difference, mobile device screens are small. Smartphones hold different personal information management functions such as, address book, calculator, and notepad. These phones also allows you to send text, instant, picture, and video messages. All these types of computers are small sized and easy to carry around. Most are usually pocket sized and internet accessible. Servers, mainframes, super and embedded computers are not pocket sized and able to carry around. These types of computers are usually stationary and cannot be moved. Servers, control access to hardware and software. Personal are needed to access information off of a server. Unlike servers, mainframes do not need personal computers to access data. Mainframes has so much space that it stores huge amounts of data and information. Most big business and corporations use mainframes for many things. Mainframes carry out functions such as preparing payroll for employees and manage inventory. You can aslo access programs on a mainframe using a personal computer. Supercomputers are the fastest, most powerful and most expensive. These computers are needed for sophisticated athematical calculations. Calculations for things such as automotive design, weather forecasting, and aerospace use supercomputers. Embedded computers are used for functions in a larger product. They are located in things such as automobiles, consumer electronics and office machines. As we all know computers come in many shapes and sizes. They can be used for many different things and can be located anywhere. Technology has increased so much that the most unheard compact thing can be a computer.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

A Freudian Reading of Hawthornes Young Goodman Brown Essay -- Young G

A Freudian Reading of Young Goodman Brown      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Incredibly, Nathaniel Hawthorne, wrote about concepts that Freud clinically proved later on. Much like Freud, Hawthorne analyzes in his tale Young Goodman Brown the same premises for which Freud is the epitome. Thus, one encounters the issues of the opposite effect that social restraint has on society, despite its purpose, as well as the unconsciousness versus consciousness in this text, together with their crucial parts - the id, superego and ego, and the issues of the libido.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Freud concluded that many of people's desires and memories are repressed because of the powerful social taboos attached to certain sexual impulses. In cases of extreme repression, the worst outcome happens. Goodman's desire becomes obsession (Hawthorne 144). Hence, disgusted by and despising social restrain due to the Puritan taboos about natural impulses, comes Hawthorne's premise (much like Freud's) that social restraint makes people rebel against their natural instincts later in life. Therefore, different individuals choose the wrong path in life or live restless in imbalance for the rest of their lives with uncertainty. Analogous and pertaining to the previous premise, Goodman Brown's superego overpowers his id, and as a result he manages to resist the diabolical side of life, yet he still lives the rest of his life in a psychological unrest and confusion. Perhaps by restating the ultimate consequence of the tyrannous superego dominati ng the id, the author tries to make sure once again that the reader comprehends the seriousness of (which underlines) the ultimate negative effect social restrain has on an individual.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Goodman Brown's journey to the diabolical forest sy... ... Apseloff, Stanford and Apseloff, Marilyn. "'Young Goodman Brown': The Goodman." American Notes and Queries, 20 (1982): 7-8. Connoly, Thomas E. American Literature, XXVIII, 370-75. Easterley, Joan Elizabeth. "Lachrymal imagery in Hawtorne's 'Young Goodman Brown'." Studies in Short Fiction, Summer91, Vol.28 Issue 3, p339, 5p. Ellis, Robert. "Young Goodman Brown." Master Plots II. Ed. Frank Magill. 5 vols. New York: Salem Press, 1986. 5: 2737-40. Fogle, Richard, H. Hawthorn's Fiction: The Light and the Dark. Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press, 1964. Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" An Introduction to Reading and Writing. Ed. Alison Reeves. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1995. Shear, Walter. "Cultural fate and social freedom in three American short stories." Studies in Short Fiction, fall 92, Vol. 29 Issue 4, p543, 7p.      

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Consider the theme of loneliness in the novel. How does it affect friendships and relationships? Essay

John Steinbeck was born in Salinas, California in 1902. When becoming a fictional writer this area played an influential part in the settings of many of his novels. This includes the great novel ‘Of Mice and Men’. As a teenager the depressing scenes of the rural Californian ranches he worked on in the summer impressed on him deeply. Steinbeck’s best-known works go into this scene very intimately with the plight of desperately poor wanderers in search of work and money, who, despite the cruelty of their circumstances, often triumph spiritually. Of Mice and Men is set in the years just after the great depression and stock market crash of the 1930’s with the dust bowl raging in the southern states. Like a lot of Americans ‘George’ and ‘Lennie’ were searching for work on ‘the ranches’, in their quest to own their own land and ‘live of the fat of the land’. However, cruel and powerful forces beyond their control thwarted their quest for land and their tragedy was marked, ultimately, by steadfast compassion and love. The novel is set in the farmland of the Salinas valley. The ranch George and Lennie work on is just outside Soledad, and the countryside surrounding the ranch is described in the beginning of the book as ‘On one side of the river the golden foothill slopes curve up to the strong and rocky Gabilan mountains, but on the valley side the water is lined with trees – willows fresh and green with every spring,’ the passage emphasises the beauty and peacefulness of the area. George and Lennie were people known as Migrant Farm Workers. These travelled the countryside between the 1880’s and 1930’s harvesting wheat. They earned very little each day, plus food and very basic accommodation in the outbuildings of the farms. Unemployment was very high in the 1930’s so the government set up agencies to organize and send farm workers to where they were needed. George and Lennie were members of the agency ‘Murray and Ready’s’ from which they got their work cards. They, like most of the migrant farm workers, were in search of ‘The American Dream’ which was to own their very own ‘little house and a couple of acres’. One of the biggest themes in the book is loneliness. Many of the characters admit to suffering profound loneliness. George sets the tone for these confessions early in the novel when he reminds Lennie that life on the ranches is among the loneliest of lives, â€Å"Guys like us, that work on ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world. They don’t belong no place†. Candy has one companion and that is his dog, so when the dog is killed he has no one and therefore attaches himself to George’s and Lennie’s dream. He does this so that he doesn’t become an outcast and alone. Candy still wants to carry out the dream even after Lennie accidentally kills Curley’s wife, even though he knows only too well that Lennie cannot return to the life he led before. Crooks feels that he would work for free, as long as he wouldn’t be alone and could communicate with someone â€Å"†¦ A guy goes nuts if he ain’t got nobody. Don’t make no difference who the guy is, long’s he with you†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Curley’s wife is so overwhelmed by her loneliness that she seeks friendship from other men. She intimidates all the other men except Slim because she is beautiful and because she is Curley’s wife. She eventually makes friends with Lennie and confesses her loneliness to him â€Å"Think I don’t like to talk to somebody ever’ once in a while?† Each of these characters searches for a friend, someone to help them cope with life. In the end, however, companionship of this type seems unattainable. For George, the hope of such companionship dies with Lennie, and true to his original estimation, he will go through life alone. The relationship between George and Lennie appears to be very unusual to the rest of the workers. It is clear that most of them are lonely. They all have different ways of coping with it; some remember wished-for friends with affection. Others become self sufficient and only look out for themselves making them very selfish. Crooks insists on the right to be alone even though he dislikes it. Carlson is incapable of caring for others and their feelings. This side of him is shown clearly when he bullies Candy into allowing him to shoot his ageing, smelly, rheumatic dog, â€Å"He ain’t no good to you, Candy. An’ he ain’t no good to himself. Why’n’t you shoot him, Candy?† The core of the novel is formed by the relationship between George and Lennie. â€Å"With us it ain’t like that. We got a future. We got somebody to talk to that gives a damn about us. We don’t have to sit in no bar room blowin’ in our jack jus’ because we got no place else to go. If them other guys get in jail they can rot for all anybody gives a damn. But not us.† In Lennie’s view, George is the most valuable person in his life; he is not just his only friend but also a role model and his guardian. Every time Lennie does something wrong he immediately thinks how angry and disappointed George will be. He also has a child-like faith that George will always be there for him. George, even though he cares about Lennie, sees him as a constant source of frustration and aggravation and frequently speaks of how much better life would be without his care taking responsibilities; â€Å"God a’mighty, if I was alone I could live so easy. I could go get a job an’ work, an’ no trouble†¦An’ whatta I got,† George went on furiously â€Å"I got you! You can’t keep a job and you lose me ever’ job I get†. However George is obviously devoted to Lennie. George’s behaviour is motivated by the desire to protect Lennie and, eventually, obtain the farm of their dreams so they can â€Å"live of the fatta the lan†. Lennie’s other childlike faith is that he believes they are both going to eventually settle down on the farm told to him often by George. This faith enables George to actually believe this account of their future aswell! George’s belief in it depends on Lennie, for as soon as Lennie dies, George’s hope for a brighter future disappears. Their companionship contrasts the loneliness that surrounds them: the loneliness of the homeless ranch worker; the loneliness of the outcast black man; the loneliness of the subjected woman; the loneliness of the old, helpless cripple; and this arouses the curiosity in the characters that they encounter, even Slim commented, â€Å"It seems kinda funny a cuckoo like him and a smart little guy like you travellin’ together.† Their friendship goes back to when they were children growing up in the same town and when Lennie’s Aunt Clara died George took responsibility for him. They have been together for many years and as George says, have â€Å"got kinda used to each other†. Both of them bring different advantages to the relationship; Lennie’s strength make them seem very attractive to potential employers who are seeking labourers. Slim says of Lennie, â€Å"I never seen such a worker†¦There ain’t nobody can keep up with him.† Lennie is also a very handy person to have around if there is a fight. George is very intelligent and organizes both of their lives. He knows how to protect Lennie from other people and dangers, although this rarely happens from the time they meet Curley and his wife. From then on Lennie just seems to go from one confrontation to another. Another reason why they stick together is that they enjoy travelling around the country with someone who cares for them. Lennie puts it well when he says; â€Å"I got you to look after me, and you got me to look after you†. After losing his dog, Candy becomes very withdrawn. Steinbeck paints him as the sad, stereotyped symbol of old age, a man whose life is void of friends and hope. When the dog is dead, he feels that he has nothing and no reason for existence. However in chapter three he overhears George describing their dream farm to Lennie and he interrupts them and asks â€Å"You know where’s a place like that?† At this point Candy reveals that he has quite a bit of money saved up which he could invest into the farm if he was allowed to. He asks George if he can come with them. After some careful thinking George agrees. Candy explains to George why he needs a place like theirs: â€Å"You seen what they done to my dog tonight? They says he wasn’t no good to himself nor nobody else. When they can me here I wisht somebody’d shoot me. But they won’t do nothing like that. I won’t have no place to go, an’ I can’t get no more jobs†. In chapter 4 Candy is searching for Lennie one night while all the others have gone into town. He finds him in Crooks’s room and he is invited in to join them. He and Lennie start a conversation about the farm. Candy is so excited that he can’t stop himself telling others. When Curley’s wife tries to strike up a conversation with them, Candy reveals to her the dream of owning a farm. This only annoys George. When he returns, he tells them to leave immediately. In Chapter 5 the dream goes sour when Candy reveals the dead body of Curley’s wife. He goes and gets George and returns to the body with him. George knows it was Lennie, as he had always feared this would happen. Candy cautiously asks George if they can still get their farm. George is silent, then says: â€Å"I think I knowed from the very first. I think I knowed we’d never do her. He usta like to hear about it so much I got to thinking maybe we would.† All their dreams disappeared the moment Lennie killed Curley’s wife. George’s only hope now is that maybe the other workers won’t want to hurt Lennie. When George leaves, Candy speaks angrily to the corpse and ‘his eyes are blinded with tears’. He is left only with the reality of his lonely and isolated existence on the ranch. Crooks is another character who gets easily sucked into George’s and Lennie’s dream of owning their own farm. When Lennie appears in the doorway of his room, Crooks turns him away, hoping to prove a point that if he, as a black man, is not allowed in white men’s houses, then whites are not allowed in his, â€Å"I aint wanted in the bunk-house and you aint wanted in my room†, but his desire for company ultimately wins out and he invites Lennie to sit with him. Once inside, Lennie and Crooks have a conversation in which both men seem to be talking to themselves rather than to each other. Lennie begins to talk about the rabbits but Crooks just thinks he is crazy and as Lennie’s dream unfolds Crooks is doubtful about it because he has seen this so many times; â€Å"I seen hundreds of men come by on the road an’ on the ranches, with their bindles on their back an’ that same damn thing in their heads†¦ every damn one of ’em†™s got a little piece of land in his head. An’ never a God damn one of ’em ever gets it. Just like heaven. Ever’body wants a little piece of lan’. I read plenty of books out here. Nobody never gets to heaven, and nobody gets no land†. When Candy enters the room and he and Lennie have a conversation about the rabbits and the farm, it is revealed to Crooks that they already have much of the money needed to buy it. He tells them that he will work for them without pay if they let him live there. Perhaps what Crooks wants more than anything is a sense of belonging, to enjoy simple pleasures such as the right to enter the bunkhouse or to play cards with other men. This desire would explain why, even though he has a reason to doubt George and Lennie’s talk about the farm that they want to own, Crooks cannot help but ask if there might be room for him to come along and hoe in the garden. Companionship and plentiful food are both parts of Crooks’s dream. However his dream comes to nothing and when Curley’s wife puts him in his place as a Negro, he knows nothing will change. Another character who turns out to be very lonely is Curley’s wife. In the beginning of the book her purpose is to be the â€Å"tramp†¦tart†¦bitch† that threatens to destroy male happiness and longevity. But later in the novel her complex and interesting character is revealed. When she confronts Lennie, Crooks and Candy in the stable, she admits to feeling a kind of shameless dissatisfaction with her life. Her vulnerability at this moment and later when she admits to Lennie about her dream of becoming a movie star † I met a guy an’ he was in pitchers. Went out to the Riverside Dance Palace with him. He says he was gonna put me in the movies.† makes her much more interesting than the stereotypical tart that flirted with all the other men. However it also reinforces the novel’s grim view of the world. In her moment of greatest vulnerability, Curley’s wife seeks out even greater weaknesses in others and directs her anger towards Lennie’s mental disability, Candy’s old age and the colour of Crook’s skin; â€Å"standin’ here talking to a bunch of bindle stiffs- a nigger an’ a dum dum and a lousy old sheep†. As a result of this constant onslaught of insults it causes Crooks to reconsider his dream of going with the others and instead live out the rest of his miserable life at this ranch where he will be tormented by many, right up until he dies. In the next chapter when Lennie is in the barn on his own and Curley’s wife enters he tries to ignore her. All Curley’s wife wants to do is strike up a conversation. She confesses how lonely she is because she intimidates all the other men, â€Å"Why can’t I talk to you? I never get to talk to nobody. I get awfully lonely.† Eventually a conversation begins and she really opens up to Lennie telling him things she hasn’t even told Curley: â€Å"Well I ain’t told nobody before. Maybe I oughtn’ to. I don’ like Curley. He ain’t a nice fella†¦ Coulda’ been in the movies, an’ had nice clothes – all of them nice clothes like they wear.. An’ I coulda sat in them big hotels, an’ had pictures took of me. When they had them previews I coulda went to them, an’ spoke in the radio, an’ iut wouldn’t cost me a cent because I was in the picture. An’ all them nice clothes like they wear. Because this guy says I was a natural.† In the end her dream is shattered at the same point George and Lennie’s dream is shattered; when Lennie accidentally kills her. Most of the characters in ‘Of mice and Men’ admit, at one point to dreaming of a different and much better life. Candy confessing that he would like to grow old not alone and owning his own farm, Curley’s wife wanting to become a movie star and Crooks to be accepted in the social ladder that is life. What makes all of these dreams typically American is that they wish for flawless happiness. George’s and Lennie’s dream of owning a farm is the perfect example of a typical American ideal; the dream offers them protection from the cruel and ruthless world and enables them to sustain themselves. But the journey they take awakens George and introduces to him the harsh reality he actually has. The story proves that the paradise, which the characters dream of, cannot be found on this earth. George and Lennie desperately cling to the notion that they are different from other workers who drift from ranch to ranch because, unlike others, they have a future and each other. But characters like Crooks and Curley’s wife serve as cruel reminders that George and Lennie are no different from anyone who wants something of his or her own. Their perfect world is one of independence. Workers like George and Lennie have no family, no home, and very little control over their lives. This is exactly the opposite of what they want. They have to do what the boss tells them and they have little to show for it. They only own what they can carry. Therefore, this idea of having such power over their lives is a strong motivation. The connection between the characters dreams and loneliness is very strong. All Curley’s wife wanted to be was an actress, she missed her chance and married, as a result she became very lonely. Crooks being Negro was always condemned to a life of loneliness but he still had a dream of what his life used to be like compared to the reality of what it was today. And Candy loosing his only true friend and companion; his dog meant that if he didn’t link himself to a dream he would lead a life of loneliness. As it happened his dream like everyone else’s was shattered by one fatal accident. When George tells Lennie to look across the river and imagine their farm, he lets Lennie die with the hope that they will attain their dream, and attain it soon. George, who must kill Lennie, is not allowed such comfort. He must go on living knowing the failure of their dream, as well as the sadness and guiltiness of knowing that he killed his best and only true friend. George lets Lennie die with the image of their farm in his mind and in a state of complete mental happiness and calmness. But George himself must continue through life knowing that they will never reach it; â€Å"I think I knowed we’d never do her. He usta like to hear about it so much I got to thinking maybe we would.† The other men who come on the scene only see the half-wit who killed a woman and deserved to die. Only Slim understands George’s tragic loss. Carlson and Curley watch Slim lead George away from the riverbank; their complete state of puzzlement is rooted more in ignorance than in heartlessness. Carlson and Curley represent the harsh conditions of a distinctly real world, a world in which the weak will always be vanquished by the strong and in which the rare, delicate bond between friends is not appropriately mourned because it is not understood.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Mcdonalds Anaylesing According to Porter’s Five Market Forces

McDonalds’s Introduction McDonald’s is the runway market leader in quick service restaurants. McDonald’s is operating in the UK since 1974, and now it has 1,200 restaurants nationwide in the UK, including 700 drive-thru outlets. Around 60% of these restaurants are running by franchises. Restaurants are located where they are most convenient to its customers including on the high street, drive-thrus and a range of sites at shopping centres, airports and leisure parks. McDonald’s UK employ over 75,000 staff, the majority them paid hourly or work part-time. They serve more than two million customers each day. The UK Company owned subsidiary of the McDonald’s corporation, with 3100 restaurants worldwide. Based on independent research CRF instate, McDonald’s has been certified as one of the Britain’s Top Employer 2010. The research shows that they offer you excellent working condition. McDonald’s has a perfect vision and working accordingly. On 14 October, McDonald’s UK held its 2009 Annual General Meeting, where the Executive Team presented the strategy for the year ahead to department heads, franchisees and suppliers. Many of you will have already heard the highlights of this event from your franchisees, operations hierarchy or at your regional cascade meetings. I thought it would be helpful to summarise these highlights in one place and recap on what the drivers of success will be, for our business and brand, in 2010. I hope you find it easy and useful read and that you share it with your management teams. According to him they are in the final stages of completing an outstanding year for McDonald’s in 2009. Their operations improvements marketing plan and plan enablers are delivering record sales, changing perceptions and meeting the increasing demands of customers. If he could sum up how he feels about their business in one word, it would be confidence-in their brand, in their momentum, in our people and in our future. And their Business Managers have never been better placed to take advantage of what their investor has in their restaurants. So what are their plans for 2009? They are currently operating in an economic downturn-a time when people become more discerning, not less. Their customers look more carefully at value and quality and are less willing to overpay. This is when they can at their best, offering a great value, quality service in a simple and engaging way. To support this, we will continue to focus on QAC, invest in re-imaging our restaurants, in developing leadership marketing campaigns, in food innovation and in creating opportunities for our people. They have proven themselves to be one of the best businesses on the high street. But they are also operating in a time of uncertainty, so they need to act nimbly if they are to continue to press home our advantage. I am looking for you and your teams to address 2009 with the flexibility, enthusiasm and resolve that has transformed their performance over the last three years. McDonald’s Strategy for 2010 Lauran Cody (Vice president for BS&I) â€Å"The McDonald’s experience has got even better, through improved restaurants operations, a great marketing plan and strong food stories, focused Plan Enablers and continued investment in our people† The key messages for 2010 were communicated under three main strategies- Upgrading the Employee, Brand Transparency and Local Relevance, Customer Experience. The economic slowdown has seen a ‘flight to value’ across the UK, explained Chief Financial Officer Brian Mullens, and although general retail footfall has gone down, the number of people going to McDonalds has gone up. This is because the whole McDonald’s experience has got even better, through improved restaurants operations, a great marketing plan, strong food stories, new premium food, focused plan enablers and continued investment in their people. Lauren Cody, Vice President for Business strategy and insights, said there is a ‘silver lining of opportunity’ for them to gain market share during economic uncertainty. Customers want the same experience for less, so if they are fast on their feet, offer great value and play to their strengths and their value heritage-without comparing their brand-they can emerge from the downturn stronger than ever before. Nevertheless, they are currently experiencing high cost inflation too, so there is a further need to protect their margins without devaluing their brands. This will achieve by: __Driving more customers into restaurants through Plan Enable like extended __Capitalising on brand equity by continue to tell our story to customers _a marketing calendar focused on providing simple, easy enjoyment __menu pricing __reducing energy usage and cost through smarter use of technology. Objectives of McDonald’s Upgrading the Employee Experience How an organisation treats its staff can make a real difference to the business, the brand and its people. In 2009 they developed new and exciting people initiatives to help attract great quality people to deliver for their customer, which contributes to changing perceptions and drives sales. They and their teams have played a key part in this success. Chief People Officer David Fairhurst explained how 2010 is about keeping up the momentum they have all worked so hard to achieve – and continuing to surprise and impress their critics by building on our reputation as a progressive employer. Their biggest people strategy for 2010 is the city and guilds backed McDonald’s Apprenticeship programme. It will include learning Maths and English online, completing the crew development programme and demonstrating key skills in the work place, such as numeracy and communication. By the end of their training, an apprentice will achieve a qualification equivalent to five GCSEs grade A* to C. Elsewhere, their new nationwide work experience programme will help restaurants deliver high quality placements, while minimising disruption to day- to-day operations. At the same time, McDonald’s will enter a Local Employment Partnership with jobcentre plus, which matches long term jobseekers to a vacancy in one of our restaurants. They will also be training a new McDonald’s retail degree for business managers in conjunction with Manchester Metropolitan University. Furthermore, the shift into Service programme will provide a new restaurants-based workshop that will set out to create service improvements through the actions of shift managers. Upgrading the Customer Experience They are breaking sales and guest count records, explained Chief Operations Officer Richard Forte, but CSO results tell them that while their customer’s satisfaction is improving, a third of visits are still not satisfactory. They need to impress their record number of customers with outstanding QSC, so they will repay them with loyalty and increase their visits. Supported by ROIP and NABIT, the Plan Enablers have been a major breakthrough for us† In reviewing the top 50 sales performing restaurants during 2008, one in three can attribute over 50% of their growth to one or more of the Plan Enablers. In the year head, they will draw on these and their operations heritage to deliver operations excellence to every customer, on every shift, on every day. Three enab les in particular will help them achieve this: __Re-imaging by the end of 2008 we will have re-imaged 300 restaurants over a two-year period. Research undertaken in areas where a large number of restaurants have been re-imaged shows customers are feeling more valued and have more affection for and trust in the brand. To capitalise on this, re-imaging will continue during 2010 and by 2011 they will have re-imaged the entire estate. __Extended Hours in 2009 they doubled the sales generated through extended hours compared to2007, and opened their restaurants to three million more customers. What’s particular pleasing is that our viewpoint results show their crew find extended hours fits into their life style too. _Drive-thru they have enabled their operations to capture on average an extra 11,200 cars per drive-thru so far this year. But while overall drive-thru CSO has fallen 1% and total experience times have fallen by 10 seconds, friendliness, accuracy and communication scores have weakened. They need to step up their performance and refocus efforts around the basics of people, product and equipment. Next year, they are developing higher capacity ordering systems to continue growth, such as customer order displays. It is about offering modern, flexible, and effortless order-and-pay options that will help make the customer’s experience more convenient and enjoyable. Brand Transparency and Local Relevance Their marketing proposition for 2009 is ‘simple, easy enjoyment’-giving their customers affordable treats in an entertaining and convenient way. With tough economic time ahead, offering good value for money to customers is crucial, so delivering a great value will also be a key of theme. In response to customer feedback, the Pound saver Menu will be renamed the saver Menu in January, so as not to suggest a specific price. Little Tasters’ will be launched too, offering new flavours in a small size as a tempting snack or tasty treat. They tend to get bored of their promotions quicker than their customers, argued marketing director Alistair Macrow, so returning to calendar will be coffee mugs in January and, in the spring, monopoly which will guarantee a winner in every r estaurant. Making our restaurants ‘kid loved, mum approved’ will be a central part of strategy, revealed senior Vice President for marketing Jill McDonald. To achieve this, they will review and re-energise birthday parties, continue to develop Happy Meal activation kits, keep using licensed characters to promote fruit bags, carrot sticks, milk, water and orange juice and carry on their successful ‘Did You Know? ’ advertising for children. ACHIVING INFLUENCE 2009 saw McDonald’s receive more positive press coverage than ever before, with food sourcing, A-level equivalent qualification, new uniforms, football and re-imaging all helping to change customers’ perception of the brand. Nick Hindle, Vice President for communication said: â€Å"in 2010 they will campaign to drive sales and become even more influential. They will focus on leading the eating out market and campaigning on food, crusading in communities to connect with families and young adults and investing in the skills of franchisees in their work as Brand Ambassador. † THEY WILL BUILD ON OUR SUCCESS BY: __generating coverage on the economics of eating out, retail coverage of the key trends, health coverage around food’s nutritional content and social affairs coverage on how families are changing their eating out habits. _launching a report on eating out, something the media, politicians and stakeholders can turn to for an understanding of the sector, its size, its diversity, the choice and trends. __building on their footfall in the community programme by providing coaching places to the disaffected young people __piloting a litter programme in Birmingham and Manchester that should help us win the litter battle, without putting any extra strain on restaurant operations. PESTLE Analysis POLITICAL The operations of McDonalds are affected by the government policies on the regulations of fast food operation. Currently government are controlling the marketing of fast food restaurants because of health concern such as cardiovascular and cholesterol issue and obesity among the young and children in the country. Governments also control the license given for open the fast food restaurant and other business regulation need to follow such as for a franchise business. Good relationship with government in giving mutual benefits such as employment and tax is a must for the company to succeed in any foreign market. McDonalds should also protect its workers by ensuring all the hiring, compensation, training or repatriation is according to Malaysian labour law as stipulated. ECONOMICS As a business entity, McDonalds need to face a lot of economic variables outside its company or its macro environment. Dealing with international sourcing for its material McDonalds should be aware on the global supply and currencies exchange. Remember, McDonalds import most of its raw material such as beef and potatoes due to local market cannot supply in abundant to meet the demand of its product. Any upside of currencies especially dollar will be impacting its cost of purchase. Working on the local country, McDonalds must face government regulations on tax of profit where it gains from the operation and other tax such as entertainment and restaurant service tax. Each country may have different scale or types of tax available and McDonalds should follow the regulation if it wants to continue the operation. As a franchise, McDonalds should also pay certain percentage of the revenue to the parent company in United States. The economic condition and growth of the country also is an important indicator to the demand of products that McDonalds offered. As the food priced slightly above normal foods, not many people will have the income range to consume the products. Moreover if the economy is bad and income percapita is affected, the demand of McDonalds product will certainly going down. On the other hand the good economy also means disposable income is more and people can spend more on more expensive food at fast food restaurant. SOCIAL / CULTURAL The changing lifestyles of Malaysia due to development of Malaysian economy should be also taking into consideration. While more people are able financially to eat at more expensive outlet such as fast food restaurant, they have higher expectation. They want to have quality in services and more conveniences that can differentiate one restaurant from another. Young urban consumers want technology in their life and facilities such as credit card payment, wireless internet, cozy and relaxing ambient place, and other attraction for their hangout and eating. All these needs should also be taken into consideration. There is not much difference between cultural and the purchase of products in a single country but for different countries cultural sensitivity should be upheld. For example in India people (Hindu) do not take beef, Muslim countries do not take pork, German like beers, Finnish like fish type of food menu, Chinese like to associate food with something good (for example prosperity), Asian like rice and Americans eat in big-sized menu. So far McDonalds has shown good efforts in localization of its menu to suit local taste but it should constantly survey and learn about local culture to better understand and design the best product for them. TECHNOLOGY For a fast food restaurant, technology does not give a very high impact on the company and it is not a significant macro environment variables. However McDonalds should be looking to competitors innovation and improve itself in term of integrating technology in managing its operation. For example in inventory system, supply chain management system to manage its supply, easy payment and ordering systems for its customers and wireless internet technology. Implementation of technology can make the management more effective and cost saving in the long term. This will also make customer happy if cost savings results in price reduction or promotional campaign discount which will benefits them from time to time. LEGAL As a certified fast food operator, there are many regulations and procedures that McDonalds should follow. For example is the Halal certification that becomes a concern to Muslim consumers. McDonalds should protect its integrity and consumer confidence by ensuring all materials and process are as claimed or must followed. Other legal requirement that the business owner should follow as stipulated in laws are such as operating hours, business registration, tax requirement, labor and employment laws and quality & environment certification (such as ISO) in which the outlet has been certified. The legal requirement is important because the offenders will be fined or have their business prohibited from operating which can be disastrous. ENVIRONMENT As one of world largest consumer of beef, potatoes and chicken, McDonalds always had been critics for world environmentalist. This is because high onsumption of beef causing the green house effect by methane gasses coming from the cow’s ranch. Large scale plantation has effect the environment and lost of green forest opening for plantation activities. Vegetarian environmentalist criticizes the fast-food giant for cruelty to animals and slaughtering. In Japan, once McDonalds want to introduce whale burger causing uproar because whales are endangered specie s. Before using paper packaging, once McDonalds also had been criticized for being insensitive to pollution because using polystyrene based packaging for its foods. Imagine millions of people purchase from fast food operator and how is the impact to world environment by throwing away those hard to recycle packaging. Our world is getting concern on environment issue and business operating here should not just care for profit, but careful usage of world resources for sustainable development and care for environment safety and health for our future generation. Critics and concern from all public or activist should be review and support if necessary to ensure we play our social responsibility better. SWOT Analysis Strengths McDonald’s business is running since 1955 and 20 of the top 50 corporate staff employees had started as a restaurant level employee time of the beginning. In addition, 67,000 McDonald’s restaurants managers and assistant mangers were promoted from restaurant staff. There was a one popular magazine in 2005 listed McDonald’s as the â€Å"Best place to work for minorities. † In order to new strategy of McDonald’s, it spending more than $1 billion annually in training its staff, and every year more than 250,000 employees completing their graduation from McDonald’s training facilities named Hamburger University. The business is ranked number one in Fortune Magazine's 2008 list of most admired food service companies. One of the world's most recognizable logos (the Golden Arches) and spokes character (Ronald McDonald the clown). According to the Packard Children's Hospital's Center for Healthy Weight children age 3 to 5 were given food in the McDonalds packaging and then given the same food without the packaging, and they preferred the food in the McDonald's packaging every single time. McDonalds is a community oriented, socially responsible company. They run Ronald McDonald House facilities, which provide room and board, food and sibling support at a cost of only $10 a day for families with children needing extensive hospital care. Ronald McDonald Houses are located in more than 259 local communities worldwide, and Ronald McDonald Care Mobile programs offers cost effective medical, dental and education services to children. They also sponsor Olympic athletes. They are a global company operating more than 23,500 restaurants in 109 countries. By being spread out in different regions, this gives them the ability to weather economic fluctuations which are localized by country. They can also operate effectively in an economic downturn due to the social need to seek out comfort foods. They successfully and easily adapt their global restaurants to appeal to the cultural differences. For example, they serve lamb burgers in India and in the Middle East, they provide separate entrances for families and single women. Approximately 85% of McDonald's restaurant businesses world-wide are owned and operated by franchisees. All franchisees are independent, full-time operators and McDonald's was named Entrepreneur's number-one franchise in 1997. They have global locations in all major airports, and cities, along the highways, tourist locations, theme parks and inside Wal-Mart. They have an efficient, assembly line style of food preparation. In addition they have a systemization and duplication of all their food prep processes in every restaurant. McDonald's uses only 100% pure USDA inspected beef, no fillers or additives. Additionally the produce is farm fresh. McDonald's serves 100% farm raised chicken no fillers or additives and only grade-A eggs. McDonald's foods are purchased from only certified and inspected suppliers. McDonalds works closely with ranchers, growers and suppliers to ensure food quality and freshness. McDonalds only serves name brand processed items such as Dannon Yogurt, Kraft Cheese, Nestle Chocolate, Dasani Water, Newman's Own Salad Dressings, Heinz Ketchup, Minute Maid Juice. McDonald's takes food safety very seriously. More than 2000 inspections checks are performed at every stage of the food process. McDonalds are required to run through 72 safety protocols every day to ensure the food is maintained in a clean contaminate free environment. McDonald's was the first restaurant of its type to provide consumers with nutrition information. Nutrition information is printed on all packaging and more recently added to the McDonald's Internet site. McDonalds offers salads, fruit, roasted chicken, bottled water and other low fat and calorie conscious alternatives. WEAKNESSES Their test marketing for pizza failed to yield a substantial product. Leaving them much less able to compete with fast food pizza chains. High employee turnover in their restaurants leads to more money being spent on training. They have yet to capitalize on the trend towards organic foods. McDonald's have problems with fluctuations in operating and net profits which ultimately impact investor relations. Operating profit was $3,984 million (2005) $4,433 million (2006) and $3,879 million (2007). Net profits were $2,602 million (2005), $3,544 million (2006) and $2,395 million (2007). Opportunities In today's health conscious societies the introduction of a healthy hamburger is a great opportunity. They would be the first QSR (Quick Service Restaurant) to have FDA approval on marketing a low fat low calorie hamburger with low calorie combo alternatives. Currently McDonald's and its competition health choice items do not include hamburgers. They have industrial, Formica restaurant settings; they could provide more upscale restaurant settings, like the one they have in New York City on Broadway, to appeal to a more upscale target market. Provide optional allergen free food items, such as gluten free and peanut free. In 2008 the business directed efforts at the breakfast, chicken, beverage and convenience categories. For example, hot specialist coffees not only secure sales, but also mean that restaurants get increasing numbers of customer visits. In 2009 McDonald's saw the full benefits of a venture into beverages. Threats They are a benchmark for creating â€Å"cradle to grave† marketing. They entice children as young as one year old into their restaurants with special meals, toys, playgrounds and popular movie character tie-ins. Children grow up eating and enjoying McDonalds and then continue into adulthood. They have been criticized by many parent advocate groups for their marketing practices towards children which are seen as marginally ethical. They have been sued multiple times for having â€Å"unhealthy† food, allegedly with addictive additives, contributing to the obesity epidemic in America. In 2004, Michael Spulock filmed the documentary Super Size Me, where he went on an all McDonalds diet for 30 days and wound up getting cirrhosis of the liver. This documentary was a direct attack on the QSR industry as a whole and blamed them for America's obesity epidemic. Due in part to the documentary, McDonalds no longer pushes the super size option at the dive thru window. Any contamination of the food supply, especially e-coli. Major competitors, like Burger King, Starbucks, Taco Bell, Wendy's, KFC and any mid-range sit-down restaurants. Dr. Jill Novak, University of Phoenix, Texas A University.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Spelling and Sound Challenges to Spanish L2 Learners of English

Spelling and Sound Challenges to Spanish L2 Learners of English Abstract Learning a second language is usually a difficult task for most people. This is because; each language has its own conventions, which are not necessarily similar to those of the second language one is trying to acquire. For native Spanish speakers trying to learn English as a second language, numerous challenges may be present.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Spelling and Sound Challenges to Spanish L2 Learners of English specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the literature review, spelling and sound system in the English language shall be addressed as the most common challenge encountered by Spanish learners of English as a second language. Problems arising from spelling and sound could be related to difficulties in pronunciation of words, learning of English vocabulary, grammar and spelling of words. Pronunciation of English words for native Spanish speakers may be a problem because of some words which star t with a certain sound for example ‘s’, being pronounced in a different way in the Spanish language. Because it is very natural for a learner to replicate the conventions of their language into the second language they are learning, it may be difficult for them to understand the pronunciation. Again, learning of vocabulary may be difficult because of words present in both languages which appear to have the same spelling but different meaning. The grammar and the spelling of words follow different conventions in the English language. In the methodologies section, selection of participants, data collection methods and procedure used will be addressed. The results of this report shall then be analyzed and thereafter, a discussion and conclusion shall follow. Introduction Those who speak Spanish as their first language have some advantages when learning English as a second language. One of the advantages is that, native Spanish speakers learn English vocabulary faster becau se of the numerous similarities that exist among words in the two languages. Nevertheless, there are some specific difficulties that native Spanish speakers encounter while learning English as a second language. Some of these problems are found in the area of spelling and sound while learning English. Most of the learners will encounter problems in these two areas because of the disparities that exist between the Spanish and the English language in spelling and sound pattern of words.Advertising Looking for report on linguistics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Literature Review Pronunciation Difficulties According to Farnen (2010), native Spanish learning English as a second language experience difficulties in learning English pronunciations. This is because, the there are numerous differences that exists in the pronunciation of words in the languages. The English language comprises of twelve vowels. There are also eight diphthongs. On the other hand, the Spanish language has only five vowels and five diphthongs. Due this background, whereby one is familiar with only five diphthongs and vowels, it becomes hard for such a person to learn English, which has numerous vowels and diphthongs. One challenge that native Spanish speakers encounter in the area of pronunciation is distinguishing between words in English that have similar pronunciation but different spelling, especially because of the vowels or diphthongs used. For exampled, the words ‘beat’ and ‘bit’ word be very challenging for a Spanish speaker to distinguish. Moreover, Farnen (2010) states that confusion of consonants may arise. Some English consonants such as ‘S’ may be confused for ‘Z’. Consequently, the English word ‘Sue’ may end up being pronounced as ‘Zoo’. Again, confusion between the consonants ‘b’ and ‘v’ is very common. The other sound that is very problematic to native Spanish speakers learning English as a second language is pronunciation of the initial sound ‘s’ in English words such as ‘solar’. This is mainly because in the Spanish language, the initial ‘S’ sound in the beginning of words is always preceded by an ‘e’ sound. The word ‘solar’ in English would end up being pronounced as ‘esolar’ by native Spanish speakers learning English. The initial ‘S’ sound in word’s beginnings will always give them problems. According to Farnen (2010), there is also a variation in the rhythm of syllables in words. This is because, in the Spanish language, all syllables have an equal length. However, in English, there are accented syllables, which are given more duration compared to the other syllables. This fact can be very difficult to understand for the native Spanish speakers who use an even rhythm in speaking En glish.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Spelling and Sound Challenges to Spanish L2 Learners of English specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Difficulty in learning vocabulary Skehan (1991) observes that there are many words in both English and Spanish languages that are similar. This similarity in a vast number of vocabulary works both for and against a person learning English as a second language. Some words that appear in both the English the Spanish language may confuse the learner, because they are not the same in their meaning. Examples of some of those words that may appear to be the same but in actual sense are not include the English ‘exit’ and Spanish ‘exito’. What is more is that some Germanic components which exist in the English language may present the Spanish learner with a lot of difficulties in mastering the language. An example of the Germanic component found in the English lan guage is the phrasal verb ‘look for’. Germanic derived components found in the English language are more difficult for the Spanish speaker to merge than French derived components. Difficulties in Grammar Learning English grammar for native speakers is one of the most difficult tasks. This is because of the confusion that always arises during learning. Particularly, there is a problem with relating the verb endings in Spanish with those in English. According to Hinkel (2011), verbs in the Spanish language have more verb endings compared to verbs in the English language, which poses a challenge to the Spanish learners in understanding the English verbs. In the English language, a meaningful and complete sentence always comprises of a subject, verb and an object. However, a complete sentence in the Spanish language does not always need a subject to be complete. Consequently, Spanish learners of English as a second language end up omitting the subject or subject pronouns in English sentences when writing or speaking. They are affected by the Spanish word order, which they tend to replicate in their English sentences, instead of the conventional subject-verb-object sentence structure required in an English sentence. Swan Smith (2001) note that: another problem arises when they are required to form negatives as well as questions using the helping verb ‘do’. This is mainly because in the Spanish language, the use of the helping verb ‘do’ is not necessary in order to form questions and negatives.Advertising Looking for report on linguistics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Third person singular possessive adjectives, which require the use of the correct gender in order for the sentence to be correct, are a major challenge to Spanish learners of English. This is because in the English language, there is differentiation of the genders in the third person singular possessive adjective, while in Spanish, this is not the case. There is only one third person singular possessive adjective that can be used for the English her, his and its. Difficulties in spelling and punctuation According to Shatz and Wilkinson (2010), native Spanish speakers experience a lot of problems in spelling English words correctly. This is because the native Spanish speakers have knowledge of Spanish, which is a language with more system as compared to the English language. Words in the English language which have the same sound can be spelt differently but in Spanish, the same sound is always spelt in the same way in all words. For example, the English sound /f/ can be spelt differ ently, for example, /gh/ as in ‘cough’, and /f/ as in ‘floor’. However, in the Spanish language, such a sound would only have a single spelling. This makes it difficult for the native speakers to understand how the same sound can be spelt differently in English words. The many vowels and diphthongs present in the English language pose a major challenge to the Spanish learners. The use of punctuation marks in sentences and in words is also confusing for native Spanish speakers. Difficulties in knowing where to put exclamation marks or question marks result to incorrect sentences. The Spanish learners have a tendency to put these punctuation marks at the wrong places for example at the beginning or at the end of sentences. This happens mostly in writing. The native Spanish speakers have also a problem in connecting sentences meaningfully. This is because they tend to use commas to link independent clauses in sentences, which results to wrong sentence structur es. Methodology Participants Twenty participants were selected randomly. The participants were chosen from Spanish native speakers who were learning English as a second language. Materials The content from books which handle the topic of difficulties encountered while learning English as a second language were used. Particularly, the area of spelling and sound challenges for native Spanish people learning English as a second language was the main focus. Procedure Various data collection methods were used. One of these methods was the use of interviews. In this case, the participants were individually interviewed in order to assess their understanding on the spelling and sound challenges they encountered while learning English. The participants were told to give their personal challenges that they encountered while learning spelling and sounds in English. The sessions lasted for an average of twenty minutes each. Group interviews were also conducted, whereby the same question was ask ed. Also, the observation method was used. The participants were observed while in a natural setting. In this case, they were observed while they were learning English during the lesson. Further observations were made while they were out of the lesson and were practicing what they had learnt by trying to speak English. While conducting both the interview and the observation, the sessions were video taped. This was done to enable the researcher look at the sessions later and make a correct analysis. Results The results showed that native Spanish learners of English language experience some difficulties while learning spelling and sounds in the English language. Some of these challenges include: Difficulties in pronunciation of English words due to the sounds that exist in both the Spanish and the English language but the pronunciation are different. Difficulties for the Spanish learners to learn English vocabulary because of similarities in some words in spelling in both languages b ut their meanings are different. Disparities in grammar rules between the English and the Spanish language also pose a major challenge to Spanish learners of English language. Finally, spelling of words which have different spelling but the sound is the same in English is a problem to native Spanish people learning English. Discussion and conclusion According to Hall (1995), the spelling of words in English is dependent on two major factors namely: phonology and morphology. This means that it is possible predict the spelling of some words in English based on their pronunciation, for example the word ‘fat’. However, it is not possible apply the same in some words in English. For example, some words retain the same root when they are changed to form words in different word classes but their pronunciation change. For instance, the second ‘c’ sound in the words electric, electricity, and electrician keep on changing as the word changes to form a different word . Additionally, Spanish learners of the English language use the grammar rules of their native language to spell words in English, which end up complicating their process of learning. Grammar conventions such as when to use capital letters vary from one language to another. Spanish learners of the English language need to be taught the new rules in depth to enhance a deeper understanding of the English language. Conclusion Learning a second language is not an easy task for people who speak a single language. This is especially difficult because, the learners of a second language are conversant with the conventions of their first language and they may try to apply the same rules to the second language they are learning. This may be a disadvantage to them because it may hinder their acquisition of the English language. According to Oxford (1990), those who teach native Spanish speakers English as a second language should teach the new rules in English explicitly to ensure that there i s an in depth understanding of English as a second language. Reference List Hall, D. (1995). Assessing the Needs of Bilingual Pupils: Living in Two Languages. London: Fulton. Hinkel, E. (2011). Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning:  ESL and applied linguistics professional series. New York: Taylor Francis. Farnen, K. (2010). Common English Difficulties for ESL Spanish Students. Santa Monica: Demand Media, Inc. Oxford, R. (1990). Language Learning Strategies. Boston: Heinle Heinle Publishers. Shatz, M. and Wilkinson, L. (2010). The Education of English Language Learners:  Research to Practice Challenges in language and literacy. New York: Guilford Press. Skehan, P. (1991). Individual differences in second language learning. Studies in  Second Language Acquisition, 13, 188-221. Swan, M. Smith, B. (2001). Learner English 2nd Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Single-Displacement Reaction Definition and Examples

Singles The four main types of chemical reactions are synthesis reactions, decomposition reactions, single-displacement reactions, and double-displacement reactions. Single-Displacement Reaction  Definition A single-displacement reaction is a chemical reaction where one reactant is exchanged for one ion of a second reactant. It is also known as a single-replacement reaction. Single displacement reactions take the form: A BC → B AC Singles The reaction between zinc metal and hydrochloric acid to produce zinc chloride and hydrogen gas is an example of a single-displacement reaction: Zn(s) 2 HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(aq) H2(g) Another example is the displacement of iron from an iron(II) oxide solution using coke as a carbon source: 2 Fe2O3  (s) 3 C (s)  Ã¢â€ â€™Ã‚  Fe(s)   CO2  (g) Recognizing a Single-Displacement Reaction When you look at the chemical equation for a reaction, a single-displacement reaction is characterized by one cation or anion trading places with another to form a new product. Its easy to spot when one of the reactants is an element and the other is a compound. Usually, when two compounds react, both cations or both anions will change partners, producing a double-displacement reaction. You can predict whether a single-displacement reaction will occur by comparing the reactivity of an element using an activity series table. In general, a metal can displace any metal lower in the activity series (cations). The same rule applies to halogens (anions).

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Basket of currencies for the middle east region Research Proposal

Basket of currencies for the middle east region - Research Proposal Example What one wanted to exchange was not what the other party required or rather wanted. This brought the issue of conflict of interest and disagreement as to whether the transaction could take place. The challenges of bulkiness of the products as some of the products or goods exchanged were so bulky as to facilitate the transaction. The challenge of breaking the goods or dividing the goods into proportions. Some people wanted a half of the portion. Those looking for meat some desired just a piece of meat, but under the regime it was difficult to divide a whole cow that was being sold into a piece of meat. (Rabinovich 43) Under the prevailing challenges a common form of tool inform of currency had to be established. This was meant to facilitate the transaction process. The common form of currency had to be uniformly agreed upon. The respective parties had to unanimously agree on a common means of currency. These was supposed to be stable in its value as the value of the currency chosen was not supposed to depreciate, it was supposed to be generally acceptable as for it to be a common currency it was supposed to be accepted unanimously, It was supposed to be durable and not depreciate easily or loose value easily it was supposed to be easily divisible and subdivided into various denominations and finally it was supposed to be very portable. Portability of the currency necessitated that it was easily carried around. Various countries on these criteria and analysis have established some form of currency. They all have a certain currency that meets the mentioned characteristics and is unique to them. This is a reality that has resulted to the diverse bundle of currencies that exists all over the world. The bundle of currency is as a result of the various different currencies from the many countries of the world. (Poghosyan, 09) Countries have evolved the aspect of exports and imports.