Saturday, May 23, 2020
The Holocaust The Holocaust was the mass murder of European Jews by the nazis during the second world war. It took place from the 30th of January 1933 to the end of the war in Europe on May 8th 1945. The nazi dictator Adolph Hitler planned to wipe out the entire Jewish population as a part of his plan to conquer the world. Holocaust refers to any widespread human disaster but its special meaning is the annihilations of six million Jewish men, women and children by the nazi regime. The Jews were singled out for extermination because the nazis had a hatred for them as they considered jews as a race whose goal was world domination and was an obstruction to the Aryan dominance. So the nazis thought it was their duty to eliminate theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Jewish lawyers and doctors lost their Aryan clients, Jewish children were not allowed to go to school with the German children and the Jewish employees of Aryanised firms lost their jobs. All synagogues in Germany were set on fire, windows of Jewish shops were smashed and thousands of Jews were arrested. The German army occupied Poland when world war two began in 1939 and the polish Jews were forced to move into over crowded ghettos surrounded by walls and barbed wire. Germanys plan to murder all the Jews in Europe was known as the final solution. The final solution began when Germany invaded the Union of Soviet Socialist republics. Jews were made to wear arm bands marked with a yellow star. More and More Jews over Europe were made to leave their homes and were taken to ghettos in Poland. The next measure was already underway to exterminate Jews and this was known as the death camp. Death camps also known as concentration camps were especially designed for systematic murder. Millions of Jews were imprisoned in death camps. Jews were transported to these camps by train, packed into carriages that were so cramped there was no room to move at all. Often the sick and elderly died on the way. The camps were equipped with gassing facilities and some had factories in which the prisoners w orked to death. Those unable to work m, the aged , the sick, many women and most children were gassed. The prisoners lived in conditions which were horrible and many died ofShow MoreRelatedHolocaust : Holocaust And Holocaust1247 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages History of holocaust Holocaust Term Paper Jewish people were tortured, abused, and subjected through horrific unfathomable situations by Nazi Germany during the Holocaust. Despite all of the unpragmatic hardships Jews all over Europe faced, many stayed true to their faith and religion. There are numerous stories in which Jewish people tried to keep the roots of their religion well knowing the risk of torture and death. The never ending fear of Jewish people living in the Ghettos and trying to surviveRead MoreHolocaust : The Holocaust And Holocaust1247 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWe all know the horrific experience, the Jews faced during the Holocaust and after it. Even after some survived the holocaust physically, they will always be tormented and haunted by those gruesome memories from those inhumane actions that were directed towards them. After, all they went through it is obvious the holocaust affected the survivor s drastically, but how about the future generations of Jews. In which I believe the holocaust did in fact affect the second generation, but the third generationRead MoreThe Holocaust : A Holocaust930 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Holocaust is one of the most well known genocides that have taken place. It had destroyed millions of Jewish lives and has caused a historical pain to these people that cannot be taken away till this day. The Holocaust can be seen from GoldhagenÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective of eliminationism. It did have all of the five steps and yet there was uniqueness about the Holocaust. The first one that can be looked at is the concentration camp itself. The history of the camp and the stories are still being unfoldedRead MoreHolocaust : The Holocaust And Holocaust1328 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Holocaust The holocaust is a term originally referred to a religious rite in which an offering is incinerated. But today, has another meaning; is any human disaster of great magnitude and importance, mainly refers to the extermination of the Jews who lived in Europe conducted by the Germany government. Throughout the nineteenth century, the Jewish community was improving their situation and their rights equalized to those of other citizens in most European countries. But despite this, these peopleRead MoreHolocaust : An Examination Of The Holocaust1117 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages In the summer of 1944 the soviets freed the Jewish from the concentration camps like Belzec, Treblinka and the most infamous killing camp Auschwitz. In an examination of the holocaust I will converse the effects of the holocaust and their worlds response, to its victims and perpetrators. The aftermath of the holocaust shows the mass Genocide people found, as Germany cures itself it showed civilization that we should not let someone manipulate us, and let them change our ideals and beliefs. I willRead MoreThe Holocaust Of The Jewish Holocaust858 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Jewish Holocaust is often described as the largest, most gruesome holocaust in history. It began in 1933 with the rise of Adolf Hitler and lasted nearly twelve years until the Nazi Party were defeated by the Allied powers in 1945. The expression Ã¢â¬Å"HolocaustÃ¢â¬ originated from Greece which is translated to Ã¢â¬Å"sacrifice by fireÃ¢â¬ . This is a very proper name considering the slaughter and carnage of Jewi sh people inflicted by the Nazis. In addition to the Jewish, Gypsies, JehovahÃ¢â¬â¢s Witnesses, homosexualRead MoreThe Holocaust : The Causes Of The Holocaust804 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAfter WW2, there was a thing called the holocaust. There were many concentration camps all over Germany where many Jews were killed in different ways. It happened between WW1 and WW2, 1933-1945. My position on why this happened is that Germany was going through a rough time, so Hitler wanted their country to resemble power. Read on to learn more about the causes and ways the Holocaust could have been avoided. The Holocaust was a mass slaying of groups of people which that Germany saw as inferiorRead MoreThe holocaust959 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Year 10 Humanities 2013 Unit 2: World War 2 Task 2 The Holocaust The Causes of the Holocaust The Process of the Holocaust In 1933, the Jewish population of Europe stood at over nine million. Most European Jews lived in countries that Germany would occupy during World War II. By 1945, the Germans killed nearly two out of every three European Jews as part of the Final Solution, the Nazi policy to murder the Jews of Europe. Although Jews, whom the Nazis deemed a priority danger toRead MoreThe Holocaust971 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof the Holocaust The Holocaust was one of the most horrible and dreaded events in history. Millions of Jews were killed, leaving many families devastated and hopeless. With the goal of racial purity, Adolf Hitler- along with many other Germans believed the Jews caused the defeat of their country, and led the Nazis to the elimination of Jews. For this reason, Ã¢â¬Å"Even in the early 21st century, the legacy of the Holocaust enduresÃ¢â¬ ¦as many as 12,000 Jews were killed every dayÃ¢â¬ (The Holocaust). LaterRead MoreHolocaust Final Draft : Holocaust1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAnthony Harmon Holocaust Final draft World History The holocaust started when Adolf Hitler became GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s dictator, and they started the organization called the Nazis. They started by terrorizing the Jewish community in Germany, then eventually put them all into concentration camps. In one of the bigger camps, they experimented and took newborn babies away from the nursing mothers and they were seeing how long they would survive without feeding. Between 1945 and 1985, about 5,000 Nazi
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Christianity and Confucianism Christianity and Confucianism are important religions today at least according to the Chinese. As a result, the rising influence brought about by Confucianism in China tends to trigger conflicts between the two religions. The Chinese society is greatly influenced by Confucianism, which has a considerable impact on Christianity as a religion in China. The modes of thinking associated with Confucianism are evident in the Chinese Christianity, but Confucianism ideas are deeply rooted in the lives of the Chinese. There is an increased rivalry and tension between these major belief systems as a result of the religion revival and the growth associated with Confucianism and Christianity in China (Lee Ruhe, 1999). Confucianism has been manipulated in China by the Communist Party to its own benefits. This is evident through the perception of Christianity as a Western scheme and a threat to take over the cultural identity of China. As a result, the interactions between Christians and Confucianism are characterized by hostility and distrust. The challenge facing China at the moment is their ability to witness effectively in the emerging pluralistic society. Confucianism marks a major presence in China today as a result of the signs that demonstrate its growth. This ranges from prominent symbols to Confucian schools. Despite Confucianism comprising religious elements, it has little articulation regarding supernatural beings and life beyond death. ItShow MoreRelatedChristianity, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, And Confucianism1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmeanings, ranging from Ã¢â¬Å"kind of similar if you look at it in the right fashionÃ¢â¬ , to Ã¢â¬Å"exactly alikeÃ¢â¬ . In any case, there are many examples, and counterexamples of universal ideas between the Ã¢â¬Å"mainÃ¢â¬ seven religions: Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism, which will be explored in the remainder of this essay. Arguments could be made on how all religions share a similarity. For example, all religions were persecuted by outsiders at some point. Perhaps the most dramaticRead MoreChristianity, Buddhism, And Confucianism872 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestruth and what is good. Though there are many different thoughts and explanations about how to live, there is some common ground between them. Throughout the year 600 B.C.E. to the year 600 C.E. the ideas of religion such as Christianity, Buddhism, and Confucianism and philosophy like those of Plato, Laozi, and Socrates. From 600 B.C.E. to 600 B.C. religions began to impact the traditions and attitudes in Europe and Asia resulting in multiple different, but yet similar approaches to the sameRead MoreSimilarities Between Confucianism And Christianity1849 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesA Contrast of Confucianism and Christianity Thesis: Chinese Confucianism and Roman Christianity are similar in both set key principles adopted by governments and both were created by leaders who taught by lesson yet different in that Confucianism was promoted by the government whereas political leaders in Rome strongly opposed Christianity. Topic Sentence: Confucianism and Christianity are similar in that both set lasting principles that influenced their governments, Confucianism with central principlesRead More Comparing Confucianism and Christianity Essay1140 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesComparing Confucianism and Christianity The premise of Confucian teachings are centered around the idea of Jen or the Ã ³virtue of humanity (Ching 68).Ã ² To accomplish this divinity, five relationships must be honored: ruler and minister, father and son, husband and wife, elder and younger brother, and friend and friend (Hopfe). These relationships led a push for a revolution of the political system to adopt the methods of Jen. Confucius sought to revive the ancient Chinese culture by Read MoreSimilarities And Differences Between Confucianism And Christianity1425 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageseither conforming to two ideologies or forgoing one and upholding the other. Being able to be both a Confucian and a Christian depends on how one weighs the similarities and differences of either part. It is well-acknowledged that both Confucianism and Christianity are significant. Their teachings have aided to form the value systems of Eastern and Western and cultures, which have navigated millions of people in behavior, spirit, mind, behavior, and relationships. Going through their doctrines, weRead MoreChristianity, Confucianism, Buddhism, Hinduism, And Islam2580 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pages 1. Describe, compare and contrast the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"selfÃ¢â¬ in Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Please state the views of each tradition fully and clearly. In life, one will undertake a spiritual journey in which you will uncover the meaning of the self. Many religions, including Hinduism, Confucianism and monotheistic religions, have developed philosophies placing importance of the Ã¢â¬Å"self.Ã¢â¬ Emphasis on morality, virtues, honest contribute to the developmentRead MoreConfucianism : The Way Of Propriety1265 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesConfucianism stands hand in hand with Daoism, as one of the two great philosophical religions of China, but is considered one of the Three Teachings; Daoism and Buddhism are the other two. Derived from the Chinese teachings of the philosopher Confucius, Confucianism focuses more on ethical living and moral conduct; emphasizing earthly and not heavenly. Even though it is referred to as a religion, Confucianism is often considered to be an ethical system. There are four common aspects when comparedRead MoreConfucianism And Its Impact On Religion1208 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesreligions that I am going to emp hasis: Confucianism and Christianity. There are many factor to cover; the aspects about each religion, the similarities, and the differences between both. Each religion has a different way to develop and beliefs. First of all, there are many important aspects about Confucianism. In china, Confucianism is most emphases in moralism and ruling with people together with their education system. In a brief definition, Confucianism is the universe in whole under the heavenRead MoreSocial Philosophy Of Confucianism1398 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesConfucianism was founded by the philosopher Confucius who was born in 551 in the Lu state of China (Biography.com Editors 2017). ConfuciusÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings focused on creating ethical models of family and public interactions and setting educational standards (Biography.com Editors 2017). Confucius died in 479 B.C., but Confucianism became the official imperial philosophy of China and its influence was significant during the Han, Tang and Song Dynasties (Biography.com Editors 2017). ConfuciusÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophyRead MoreWork of the Christian Missionaries: Converting China to Christianity1392 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Christian missionaries knew it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to be easy. Going to China at the time was a one way trip to an unknown land. The task of converting China to Christianity was rife with challenges due to continued resistance to any sort of outside influence that was a tradition of China for many years. Never-the-less the missionaries still went to China and by leveraging what advantages they could find, they were able to find some measure of success over the years. One of the men who made so much
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Earth Science 1 October 29, 2012 Homework Assignment 1. Explain how you should react or what you should do when you feel an earthquake if you find yourself in each of the following scenarios. Do not exceed the space provided. We will write a custom essay sample on Earthquake Assignment or any similar topic only for you Order Now a) Indoors: I will stay calm and drop to the ground. I will take cover by getting under a sturdy table or other piece of furniture. I will hold on until the shaking stops. If there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a table or desk near me, I will cover my face and head with my arms and crouch in the corner of the building. b) Outdoors: I will move away from building, streetlights, and utility wire. If IÃ¢â¬â¢m in the open I will stay there until the shaking stops. c) In a moving vehicle: I will stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in the vehicle. I will avoid stopping near or under buildings, trees, overpasses, and utility wires. I will proceed cautiously once the earthquake has stopped. I will avoid roads, bridges, or ramps that might have been damaged by the earthquake. d) Trapped under debris: I will not light a match or move about or kick up dust. I will cover my mouth with a handkerchief or clothing. I will tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can locate me. I will Shout only as a last resort. Shouting can cause me to inhale dangerous amounts of dust. 2. What are the main things that you should do after an earthquake hits in the area where you are staying? In particular, discuss what you should do if you find yourself in each of the following scenarios. Do not exceed the space provided. ) Aftershock: When it is safe to move, I will exit my home. I will help my neighbors who may need assistance. I will give first aid when appropriate. I will not move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury call for help. * b) Tsunami: I will go to a designated public shelter if I have been told to evacuate or if I feel it is unsafe to remain in my home. I will text SHELTER + my zip code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in my area (example: shelter 12345). c) Electrical system damage: I will not stand in water. If safe to do so, I will turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit breaker. If the situation is unsafe, I will le ave my home and call for help. * d) Gas leakages: If I smell gas or hear a hissing or blowing sound, I will open a window and leave immediately. If I can, I will turn off the main gas valve from the outside call the gas company from a neighborÃ¢â¬â¢s residence. How to cite Earthquake Assignment, Essay examples
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Importance of Product Layers and Product Components. Answer: Introduction When an entrepreneur or a customer thinks about the product, they perceive it in different layers. Like let's take an example of a car, the customer will probably think of factors like the look, driving experience and much more. However, a product is much more than these features (Krebs et al., 2010). The report will try to understand different layers of products and how an entrepreneur presented it in the market. The concept of three level of product comes in picture when organizations reach the stage of finalizing the product or when a product is analyzed from different angles. It is important to understand here that just like an organization; product to follow a hierarchy system (Krebs et al., 2010). A product, therefore, can be divided into three layers. This layer is actually based on serried of different features and advantages which assist the organization in segmenting the market and further helps in targeting and positioning of the product. This is why; three layers of produ ct are those who assist in defining the product in a perfect manner (Krebs et al., 2010). The product layers The focus of the marketer is to discover the preference of the consumer for different advantages and at the same time will also match a single feature that can add to the choice. This is why; there are so many professionals in the field of marketing and sales who ask so many questions to understand customer and then there are some novice salespersons who only concentrate on demonstrating the product (Burroughs., 2011). The overall concept of three level of the product helps when one can easily finalize the product or when the customer wanted to analyze the product. So like any business, a product also follows the hierarchy. A product can also be divided on three level which consists of different kind of factors and advantages that helps the product to segment, target and then position as per customer demand (Hammack et al., 2011). In other words, these three levels of product help the manager to define the product in a more efficient manner. Following are three layers and their detailed explanation: Core product: the core product or actual product has a very light distinction between them, and it is important that any marketing manager clearly understands the difference. It is important here that only by explaining the core product correctly; an organization can achieve excellence in marketing. The core product is also crucial, and their advantages and other features are intangible by nature (Porter and Heppelmann, 2014). For example, if an organization is planning to launch a product like say a car manufacturing unit. So the main question now that what should be the core product and will it be car only or anything else. The answer here is no because core product here would be connected with the convenience of the consumers. The consumer has many options for transportation like bus or taxi which can help him to reach the destination. (Hammack et al., 2011). However, when the customer prefers options like cars, they are giving preference to convenience, and there are so many time s when they are looking for a status. Therefore, the core product for companies like Tata cars will be based on convenience and also the value for money on the other hand when a consumer choose a BMW; it will be their status symbol (Porter and Heppelmann, 2014). Actual product: the real product is something that is produced once the core product is decided by the company. Therefore, from the example discussed in the core product, if the core product is a convenience, the actual product decision will be a comfortable or value for money car (Jayal et al., 2010). In this, the product is related to a status symbol and the manufacturing will be based on luxury with high quality. The actual product can be easily quantified and also have certain features like branding, quality or color and much more. Augmented product: the augmented product is something that comes into existence and is connected by-products that are both core and actual products. This might be a finished product within them (Hugstad and Durr, 2015). Like for example, it the organization is manufacturing a car then it needs regular service and warranty and much more. Therefore, mastering these features will bring the organization into a territory of that product, or it may also be called as augmented products. Some organizations are entirely dedicated to providing expanded product like service centers or AMC centers (Jayal et al., 2010). Also, it is important to remember that there three level of product that is not just necessary for the Tangible product but intangible products or services as well. Like for example, in a software company, the core product will be better functions in the form of operations and efficient management for the customers (Hoyer et al., 2010). Here the actual product will be based on mul tiple factors related to the organization for which any software is required and need to program accordingly. Here the augmented product will be built on the maintenance of the software and timely update of the same. This is why, even the service product here have three levels, and these three levels of the product are very crucial especially for the management of the product and are also crucial while taking any decision in the marketing mix of the company (Brennan and Owende, 2010). This is actually because of an augmented product that is related to the actual product, and then there is promotion and placing the product or service in a proper manner with right pricing for the same. Therefore, product decisions are normally the initial decisions in the marketing mix cycle (Brennan and Owende, 2010). Following diagram helps in understanding the three level of marketing: The product components concept Following is the detailed discussion of components of product planning: Generation of the idea: - this process is a continuous process where is constant and at the same time systematic search for new kind of opportunities for the product. It consists of new sources for ideas and different ways to generate new ideologies and ideas. There are different sources of ideas like employees, competitors, channel members and customers (Bosch and Bosch-Sijtsema, 2010). At the same time, there are various methods through which different ideas can be generated that include market survey, brainstorming and different kind of avenues as well (Varadarajan, 2010). Product Screening: - there are potential and good ideas for a product, which are important to be tested and scrutinized from time to time. Here product screening method can be poor and can also have different unsuitable ideas that are not considered for various actions in future. It is important that each idea must weigh against a list or a checklist. It must be weighed on the scale of 1 to 10 where one is outstanding, and ten are poor. Here every attribute related to production and marketing of a product must be tested before taking right decision (Varadarajan, 2010). Concept testing: testing of the concept is done with the consumers and for this, it is important to have a product that can successfully measure the overall attitude and at the same time intuition at a very early stage while launching a new product and planning process around it (Kuhfeld and Tobias, 2012). Testing of concept should be quick and at the same time an inexpensive process. This way companies can also access and take advantage of the enthusiasm of the consumers. This process of testing the concept should approach potential customers and react to the surveys like responding to the picture or description of product through written and oral communication (Kuhfeld and Tobias, 2012). Business Analysis: Business analysis consist of many types of reviews, evaluation and in the end projection of many features that customers desires. It consists of productions costs, break-even points, capital investment and profitability for every potential product and the next step here is the overall experience and product development which can be very time-consuming and critical at the same time (Papadopoulos and Heslop, 2014). Development of product: in product development cycle, there should be an idea for any new product that can easily be converted into a form which is tangible and it also consists of basic strategy for marketing (Lhteenmki et al., 2010). Test marketing: in this step, a developed product is placed in one or more area or zones in a place. After profound observation, the actual performance is evaluated along with a proposed marketing plan (Lhteenmki et al., 2010). The overall aim is to test the product viability and at the same time also plan all the marketing efforts in a more real setting with the proper product launch. It is also important to test marketing that needs many decisions at the same time like when and where to test the product or what should be the duration of the test and what all is required to a test and much more (Krebs et al., 2010). Commercialization: this is the last stage in fundamental product concept and this stage the product is introduced to the target audience by looking at entire production. Marketing also needs a large investment which should be timely planned, and there must be a long-term commitment (Krebs et al., 2010). Three products components and explanation New product development here will be based on the consumers taste and preferences for advantages over characteristics by basing the research on some needs. New product development focuses on addressing the needs and also satisfying the customers. NPD also can deliver the product that can offer multiple advantages at core, actual and in the end augmented level (Kotler and Armstrong, 2010). New product development may also provide a different kind of replacement product in the present time, and it can add multiple products to the current line of goods. At the same time it can also discover a new kind of product lines, and also it can deliver very innovative and right products which the whole world might not have experienced before (Kotler and Armstrong, 2010). There can so many reasons behind launching a new product and changes in the legal aspect can mean that companies are forced to design and also develop a new kind of product (Kotler, 2012). For example, technology has completely changed the market in different categories like there was a time when videotape recorder was in a fashion which moved to digital and then to DVD recorders (Hultn, 2011). This is why the product will have to modify as per the changing demand of the target audience. There are times when the company will have to increase the volume of the production and also deliver the product by running to its entire capacity. A perfect example which can be taken here is the food manufacturers of tinned products that operate a 24/7 and it also designs a different kind of derivatives of the products to lower the overall cost per unit in production (Storbacka, 2011). Therefore product lines can be extended, and the main reason will be based on easing the efficiency at the operati onal level. Also, there is a very intense rivalry in the market that will also result in new product development. For example, a smartphone and how quickly products like this go through product life cycles and complete life-cycle (Gummesson, 2011). Conclusion Change is an only constant thing in the market and when a change occurs in any feature of the marketing mix will impact new product development. For example, there is a trend to shop everything on the internet, and there are certain products that have to be distributed through online stores, and this product will be adapted to make it as compact as possible and also it is important to make the delivery process simple (Chen et al., 2011). New product development can influence tastes and preference of customers that will force the company to adapt the products and services for the local or global market. Reference Krebs, F.C., Fyenbo, J. and Jrgensen, M., (2010). Product integration of compact roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules: methods and manufacture using flexographic printing, slot-die coating and rotary screen printing.Journal of Materials Chemistry,20(41), pp.8994-9001. Hammack, R., Imrich, W. and KlavÃâ¦Ã ¾ar, S., (2011).Handbook of product graphs. CRC press. Porter, M.E. and Heppelmann, J.E., (2014). How smart, connected products are transforming competition.Harvard Business Review,92(11), pp.64-88. Jayal, A.D., Badurdeen, F., Dillon, O.W. and Jawahir, I.S., (2010). Sustainable manufacturing: Modeling and optimization challenges at the product, process and system levels.CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology,2(3), pp.144-152. Brennan, L. and Owende, P., (2010). Biofuels from microalgaea review of technologies for production, processing, and extractions of biofuels and co-products.Renewable and sustainable energy reviews,14(2), pp.557-577. Bosch, J. and Bosch-Sijtsema, P., (2010). From integration to composition: On the impact of software product lines, global development and ecosystems.Journal of Systems and Software,83(1), pp.67-76. Varadarajan, R., (2010). Strategic marketing and marketing strategy: domain, definition, fundamental issues and foundational premises.Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,38(2), pp.119-140. Kuhfeld, W.F. and Tobias, R.D., (2012). Large factorial designs for product engineering and marketing research applications.Technometrics. Papadopoulos, N. and Heslop, L.A., (2014).Product-country images: Impact and role in international marketing. Routledge. Lhteenmki, L., Lampila, P., Grunert, K., Boztug, Y., Ueland, ., strm, A. and Martinsdttir, E., (2010). Impact of health-related claims on the perception of other product attributes.Food Policy,35(3), pp.230-239. Krebs, F.C., Fyenbo, J. and Jrgensen, M., (2010). Product integration of compact roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules: methods and manufacture using flexographic printing, slot-die coating and rotary screen printing.Journal of Materials Chemistry,20(41), pp.8994-9001. Kotler, P. and Armstrong, G., (2010).Principles of marketing. pearson education. Hoyer, W.D., Chandy, R., Dorotic, M., Krafft, M. and Singh, S.S., (2010). Consumer cocreation in new product development.Journal of Service Research,13(3), pp.283-296. Kotler, P., (2012).Kotler on marketing. Simon and Schuster. Hultn, B., (2011). Sensory marketing: the multi-sensory brand-experience concept.European Business Review,23(3), pp.256-273. Storbacka, K., (2011). A solution business model: Capabilities and management practices for integrated solutions.Industrial Marketing Management,40(5), pp.699-711. Gummesson, E., (2011).Total relationship marketing. Routledge. Chen, Y., Fay, S. and Wang, Q., (2011). The role of marketing in social media: How online consumer reviews evolve.Journal of Interactive Marketing,25(2), pp.85-94. Hugstad, P.S. and Durr, M., (2015). A study of country of manufacturer impact on consumer perceptions. InProceedings of the 1986 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference(pp. 115-119). Springer International Publishing. Burroughs, J.E., Dahl, D.W., Moreau, C.P., Chattopadhyay, A. and Gorn, G.J., (2011). Facilitating and rewarding creativity during new product development.Journal of Marketing,75(4), pp.53-67.
Wednesday, March 25, 2020
Thomas Hardy experienced great difficulty believing in a forgiving, Christian God because of the pain and suffering he witnessed around him. He also endured some pain, with the loss of his wife and suffering during the five years he spent in London that made him ill. As a young man, Hardy wanted to become a clergyman. This vocation was quite a turn around of what he pursued--a career as a famous agnostic writer. He lost faith in his religious, Victorian upbringing. As such, he shared a belief with many modern poets in the futility and waste of human existence. Hardy did believe in a supreme being or as he liked to call him The Immanent Will, but he did not think of Him as a forgiving God like other Christians. Instead, Hardy believed Him to be portrayed as a vengeful God, which we learn from his poem, The Convergence of the Twain: (Lines on the loss of the 'Titanic'). Thomas Hardy wrote this poem with a very noticeable chronological disruption midway through the poem. Unlike most poets who keep their poems in chronological order to maintain suspense throughout the poem, Hardy believed that the subject of the Titanic was so well known that there was not any reason to keep the readers in suspense of what impending doom awaited the Titanic. Instead, he commenced his poem with a description of the Titanic at present: grotesque, slimed, dumb, indifferent(st III). Then he proceeds to the fashioning(st VI) of the famous ship and continues to that famous April evening where the consummation(st XI) of the two titanic masses occurred--the grand ship made from human hands and the silent iceberg made by the Immanent Will(st VI). Hardy does not confine himself inside the walls of set syllables per verse; every stanza has a different number of syllables in each verse. In the first part of his poem the rhythm is very alluring. With proper uses of caesuras, stresses and slacks, Hardy seems to capture the solitude of the sea that he is describing with his steady, gentle sway of words, a rhythmic tidal lyre(st II). While reading this poem, the words seem to move persistently slowly up and down like the tide: I In a solitude of the sea Deep from human vanity, And the Pride of life that planned her, stilly couches she. (lines 1-3) Hardy also numbers all of the eleven stanzas of his poem. The numbering indicates the separation of each one of the stanzas as if to imply that we have to look at this poem as eleven different poems in one. This method gives us a chance to understand the poem more efficiently by studying one stanza at a time. A first reading of the poem would reveal five stanzas describing the gilded gear(st V) at the bottom of the sea and six stanzas that refer to the ship and to the iceberg converging at a point so far and dissociate(st VII). However, an enjambment occurs between stanza VI and stanza VII, as if these two stanzas were meant to be one: The Immanent Will that stirs and urges everything / Prepared a sinister mate(lines 18/19). Ironically, these two stanzas describe both the creation of the ship and the creation of the iceberg that are destined to come together later in time. Hardy takes more of an antithetical approach toward the story of the Titanic than most people think of or 'chose' to think of when they hear of the tragedy. Most people want the story to be told through a tragic, yet romantic, point of view that relates the tragedy of the men, women, and children who were lost on that gruesome night. People relate emotionally to the story of the Titanic by watching the movie that was released in the past year because it is from the point of view of the people on the ship. We see a romantic mood portrayed be the people on the ship and the tragedy suffered in the loss of their loved ones. Consequently, Hardy does not want us to share in this travesty that they have experienced. Instead of a tragic poem of the people involved in this tragic event, Hardy distances himself from the picture, far enough
Friday, March 6, 2020
Argumentative Essay Sample on Homeschooling Governments around the world usually require that parents send their children to educational institutions with trained and qualified teachers or tutors who can train the children according to a certain curriculum approved by the national government. Nevertheless, a new trend of educating children has been on the rise, which is the trend of educating children within homes. An increasing number of parents across the world seem to perceive it is much better for their children to be educated within their homes, by teachers selected by the parents, to offer customized education to their children. Most of the parents who prefer homeschooling are those who do not feel like the quality of education offered in educational institutions is good enough and does not deeply cover the curriculum, as the parents prefer. There are many reasons why a parent may prefer homeschooling to education in schools, such as social factors. Educational institutions have been plagued by numerous social problems such as bullying and antisocial behavior. To prevent their children from being bullied or being pressured into uncouth behavior by peers, some parents have made it their duty to supervise the company with which their children interact, and homeschooling provides the best environment that enables the parents to pay close attention to the social behavior of their children. The quality of schooling that educational institutions offer is another reason that pushes some parents to prefer homeschooling. Many schools are not strict on the number of students allowed in each class, and this has resulted in a situation where some schools have classes with too many students per class. When the students in a class are many, the teacher may not have enough interaction with each one of the students and as such, may even miss identifying any special needs that a student may have. Some educational institutions are also never given enough funds to operate and this easily results in a situation where teachers may not have enough tools to teach the students. In other cases, the teachers may even be demoralized, due to the lack of sufficient resources, and this can easily affect the way the teachers teach the children in class. Parents who select homeschooling never worry about such issues, because they get to pay the teachers nicely and also offer all the teaching tools needed. Yet, another reason for homeschooling is to offer the children subjects or units that may not be offered in educational institutions that are accessible to the parents. For instance, a parent may want their children to access certain religious classes together with the normal curriculum. If the parent cannot find a school that will offer those extra classes, a parent may decide to home school their children and offer their children the customized education. Tips on writing an exploratory essay: An exploratory essay is one, where you will try to look at the issue, you have presented in the introductory paragraph, from different points of view. Determine several major point on the issue, to discuss them in the body of your essay. And dont forget, that you can add your personal opinion on the matter and define, what point of view you favor. You can buy your essay about Homeschooling and get exploratory essay writing help from CustomWritings.com custom writing service now!
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Britannia Bridge ( Menai Strait, wales ) - Research Paper Example Alternatively, contained in the research is the civilization behind the project, the culture, and the contribution it must have made to the built environment. A critical analysis of the actual construction and the materials used has been used to assist in the generation of a what-if analysis of a scenario of the project being built today. Great bridge works in history are perhaps an inspiration for the construction of more exhilarating works in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s and in the future needs. It goes without saying that great future construction works such as the envisioned Transatlantic Tunnel will build a lot on the past successful works of a similar challenge. Linking some of the most successful earliest construction projects that will spur growth in this built environment sector brings into the minds of engineers the contribution that suspension and tube bridges make. In European construction history, some of the earliest bridges of this nature to be constructed and that studies can reveal useful insights on their engineering cannot ignore the great Welsh works. In this discourse, the Britannia Bridge that connects the Anglesey Island with mainland of the country is analyzed to reveal the intricate details of the project from construction to completion and reconstruction (Anglesey Mon Information, 1). For purposes of comp arison of factors, the geography of the area around the bridge is briefly discussed, with explanation of why a bridge was needed. A mention of a second bridge serving the same purpose as the Britannia Bridge is made with a brief explanation of its construction aspects enabling comparison with the main bridge of discussion. In the mid 19th century, it was perhaps very unimaginable to have a tube bridge connecting an island with the mainland but in 1826, the Menai Bridge was completed. Its capacity was overstretched over the years and it became clear that as the flow of important cargo and
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
The Dead Christ with Angels Painting by Rosso Fiorentino - Essay Example In the painting, Christ has been shown in nude along with other angels who are smaller in size than him and have been clothed. The play with proportions and the use of brilliant colors in combination with light and shadow shows that the painter is a follower of the Florentine mannerist school of painting. In this painting, the artist had made a deviation from his regular style of painting. This style consisted of sharp edges in painting along with the use of bright and complementary colors and with the delicate use of their changing effects. The body of Christ depicted in the painting, draws many influences from the works of Michelangelo. The physical features seem to be derived from his works like the sculpture of pieta and the 'Risen Christ' in the church of Santa Maria Sopra Minerva. Also, the posture of Christ sitting on the unidentifiable support resembles the postures of the ignudi on the ceiling of Sistine Chapel. With the influence of Parmigianino, Rosso added elegance and sophistication to his work as compared to his earlier works and this is expressed in this work. Christ, which is the central figure in the painting, is shown slightly larger than the angles; this might be an attempt to show the divinity and the largeness of his character.
Monday, January 27, 2020
Moving through levels of care in health A Health system can be defined as a group of people whose primary focus is to improve the health or wellbeing of others (WHO, 2005). These entities could include organizations such as hospitals and other health care services that respond to the needs of the population. This essay will focus on the three levels of care: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary and explore how patients move through these three levels of health care in New Zealand (NZ), the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US). The similarities and differences between these systems will be highlighted and the accessibility of these providers will be discussed. There are three different levels of care in terms of Health Systems, each addressing the necessities of the patient and are organized into Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Care (Bodenheimer Grumbach, 2009). Primary care is usually the first point of contact for many individuals and focuses on ambulatory care such as general practitioners (GPÃ¢â¬â¢s), midwives and pharmacists. Healthcare at this level tends to be family orientated and situated around communities, treating ordinary, every day health problems (Alberta Physician Link, n.d.). The Secondary care level usually involves much more specialized services and is generally hospital based; examples include specialized physicians like pediatrics and obstetrics (Bodenheimer Grumbach, 2009). Tertiary care typically involves specialist physicians such as cardiac surgeons and immunologists. Care at this level comprises of the treatment of uncommon and complicated diseases (Bodenheimer Grumbach, 2009). The margin between secondary an d tertiary health care is difficult to distinguish between as enhancements in modern day technology means that surgeries that are associated with tertiary level is being introduced to local hospitals (French, Old, Healy, 2001). Patient flow through the three levels of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary care differs from country to country and is dependent on the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s focus and organization. Each country operates differently in order to respond to the needs of the population. Patient flow in most cases is a stepwise process and enables efficiency in Health care systems. In New Zealand, individuals who have health problems will go directly to their GP as their first contact (French et al., 2001). The reason for this is, unless itÃ¢â¬â¢s an accidental and emergency situation, New ZealandersÃ¢â¬â¢ can only gain access to secondary and tertiary services by referrals from their GPÃ¢â¬â¢s. GPÃ¢â¬â¢s can be described as Ã¢â¬Ëgate keepersÃ¢â¬â¢ who hold the key to higher levels of health care (French et al., 2001). Only by obtaining this key Ã¢â¬â in this case a referral, will patients in NZ be able to gain access to secondary and tertiary care. The same situation also applies to private health sectors (French et al., 2001). If further diagnosis is required after seeing the GP, the patient will be referred to a specialist at a public hospital who will be the sole decision maker in deciding the urgency of the situation. If specialized assistance is required, the patient and their GP will be notified within ten days and will have an appointment within six months (Cumming et al., 2013). GPÃ¢â¬â¢s taking on the role as gate keepers will lead to the development of a strong patient-caregiver relationship, which eventually leads to better health outcomes (Bodenheimer Grumbach, 2009). In the United Kingdom, the British National Health Service (NHS) provides health care. The GPs here also take on the role of gatekeepers and apart from treating every day problems; they also provide prevention services such as immunization to prevent diseases and vaccinations (Boyle, 2011). Similar to New Zealand, patients are unable to gain access to secondary services unless they have a referral from their general practitioners (Bodenheimer Grumbach, 2009). This system differs from New Zealand in that a referral from a GP to access health care at the tertiary level is quite unusual and is usually attained by a referral from the secondary care level (Wheeler Grice, 2000). The exceptions to these regulations are accidental and emergency situations, for example, a trip to the Accidental and emergency department (AE) would not require a referral. The US health system focuses more on care at the tertiary level. This health system differs from NZ and UK in that patients are able to access secondary and tertiary levels of care without a referral (Bodenheimer Grumbach, 2009). In the US, patient flow is not as efficient and it has become customary for individuals to approach any doctor of their choice depending on their health problems (Bodenheimer Grumbach, 2009). The numerous roles specialists and doctors have to undertake accentuate the huge gap in primary care. In NZ and the UK where physicians specialize in providing health care at the secondary level, tertiary physicians in the US have to provide health care at both the primary and secondary level in order to make up for the lack of primary care providers (Bodenheimer Grumbach, 2009). Access to health care is how obtainable medical care is. There are numerous barriers to access and these include factors such as cost, transport and locations of hospitals relative to where individuals live. Each country differs in the way they attack certain barriers. The US health system focuses more on the concept of the dispersed model in terms of organization and is more orientated towards tertiary care (Bodenheimer Grumbach, 2009). Health insurance is a major factor that influences individualÃ¢â¬â¢s access to healthcare. Individuals in the US have employers who aid in the costs of health insurance. However, individuals who have employers that do not cover health insurance, have to figure out their own way to access health care (Bodenheimer Grumbach, 2009). More often than not, it is these individuals who do not fit the criteria for public health insurance and do not have the means to obtain private health insurance due to expensive premiums (Bodenheimer Grumbach, 2009). The number of uninsured people has been increasing and countless employers have responded to the ever-growing costs of health insurance by no longer providing it for their employees. Health insurance in the US poses as the biggest financial barrier towards access and Bode nheimer and Grumbach accentuates this point. Their findings reveal that those who are not insured receive less care, resulting in bad health consequences. The two main public health insurance companies in the US are Medicare and Medicaid. MedicaidÃ¢â¬â¢s target audience is for citizens aged 65+ and in low-income families while MedicareÃ¢â¬â¢s targets disabled individuals and residents who are 65+, under 65 year olds are funded by private insurance (The Commonwealth Fund, 2012). However, many physicians do not accept people with Medicaid insurance as this means they receive less payment. Compared to the individuals who are uninsured, those who are insured with Medicaid have a much more stable source of health care and access to other services. However, in contrast to the others who are privately insured, they are more likely to have difficulties when pursuing medical care and other prescriptions (Bodenheimer Grumbach, 2009). Numerous residents are underinsured and uninsured (The Commonwealth Fund, 2012) resulting in less people obtaining access to medical care. People are entitled to refer themselves to any level of health care depending on their situation, resulting in a large out of pocket fee if they were uninsured. However, access to health care is incredibly beneficial for the well off individuals who are able to afford private insurance. The US health system primary focus on the tertiary level impacts access as it allows entry into any level of care depending on the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s choice and this is incredibly advantageous for those who are well off, but poses as a disadvantage for the poor and those who cannot afford health insurance. In NZ, the health system focuses more on the regionalized model in terms of organization and is orientated towards primary health care. The Government along with the District Health Boards (DHB) and Primary Healthcare Organizations (PHO) plays a huge role in delivering health care to individuals in NZ (Gauld, 2012). There are two types of PHOs established, interim and access (Malcolm, 2004). Access PHOs subsidies 60-70% of GP costs for those in disadvantaged areas, whereas Interim PHOs subsidies 30-40% of GP costs for those who are in less disadvantaged areas (Malcolm, 2004). This will enable those who live in underprivileged areas to gain access to health care, without worrying about costs. Most hospital fees are free of charge with some additional expenses depending on different situations (Cumming et al., 2013), the government also subsidizes visits to the GP. This means that those who struggle financially will be more likely to access primary health care, enabling better health o utcomes, especially because a referral is needed in order to access secondary and tertiary levels of care. Individuals are also able to obtain private health insurance, allowing them to receive a private appointment with a surgical consultant before individuals who are noninsured, resulting in a reduction in wait times for surgery (Cumming et al., 2013). However, there could be a limit in choices of private providers as they are mainly situated in the main centers, limiting access for those in rural areas (Cumming et al., 2013). Large distances and small numbers of care providers make it difficult for populations in rural areas in NZ to access health care (Cumming et al., 2013). This poses as a significant barrier that limits access as those who live a great distance away have a limited amount of options in terms of health care. The distribution of health care services and physicians in rural areas is smaller as this life style is undesirable, reducing rural populationsÃ¢â¬â¢ acce ss to health care (Cumming et al., 2013). Access in NZ is beneficial as hospitals are situated in good geographic locations as studies reveal that 90% of individuals are able to reach a district hospital within an hour (Cumming et al., 2013). NZÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on the primary health care level impacts access as it allows individuals whom require specialized care to gain access by referral from a GP. Compared to the US, access to health care in NZ is favorable for those who live in good geographical locations but poses as a disadvantage for those in rural areas. In the UK, the health system is similar to NZ in that its health system is structured like the regionalized Dawson model and orientated towards primary health care (Bodenheimer Grumbach, 2009). The British National Health Service (NHS) provides primary care and hospital services (Boyle, 2011). Most primary health care is free and is covered by the NHS, although there are some out of pocket payments that are not covered (Boyle, 2011). Free primary health care would maximize access, as those who struggle financially will still be able to seek treatment without concerns of payment. BoyleÃ¢â¬â¢s research also reveals that there has been many unnecessary trips to the AE were not considered as crucial, possible reasoning for this could be due to their inability to obtain primary health care. Waiting times in the UK poses as a barricade to health care, with some patients waiting up to 18 months for surgeries, however, the average waiting time has now been reduced to 18 weeks (Boyle, 2011 ). Long waiting times reduces access which means that less people will be able to receive the care that they need in the time that they require it. These wait times couldÃ¢â¬â¢ve instigated numerous avoidable AE trips that couldÃ¢â¬â¢ve been solved by the GPs. The UK is quite successful in terms of access as it has many after hour services including AE, NHS Direct and after hour GP services (Boyle, 2011). These services will maximize access to health care, as more people will be able to obtain the care they need in the time that they require it. The structure of the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s health system primarily focuses on the primary level, its impact on access just like NZ, enables entry into higher levels of health care through a referral from a GP. Access in the UK is beneficial to all residents due to the free primary health care being provided along with after hour services. No health system is perfect. Every health system has certain flaws that could be improved. However, all health systems have something common, they all have a goal to provide care for those in need.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Strategic Management Issues of Coca-Cola Company Every successful study should have specified and well-defined objectives. A careful statement of the objective helps in preparing a well-decorated report facilitating others to take decision on it.The specific objectives of the study are to have knowledge about- To know about the strategic management issues of multinational companies To know about the strategies of the multinational companies To characterize the challenges of international strategic management To know about the international strategic management process To identify and characterize the levels the international management strategies To know about the Coca-Cola CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies management process. SCOPE OF THE STUDY This study has focused upon the Management Issues those are followed by the Coca-Cola Company for capturing the global market.Through our report we try to find out the global challenges of International Strategic Management to assess the basic strategies, describe the international strategic management process of Coca-Cola Company. We hope this study will help to whom, who want to know more clearly about strategic management, its issues as well as the key factors which affect the process of Internationalization for a company. Data and Methodology We examine secondary data of which related to the Strategic Management Issues at the global based Market. Data are collected on various issues from annual report of Coca-Cola Company (2005-2009).In our report we analysis the monthly, quarterly, half-yearly news Review of this company. Based upon this data we like to analysis the Economic Review, Statistical Strategic condition of the Coca-Cola Company. Both the official and regional website helps us to find out more related to the issues with the global market. Form those huge data we take the necessary and used them for the analysis. Our analysis data are clearly represented in our main part of the report thr ough relevant chart, graph with proper description. LIMITATIONS OF THE REPORTAs a student of faculty of Business Administration and Management, 7th semester, this is our first initiative for making a report on Ã¢â¬Å"Strategic Management Issues of Multinational Companies (MNCs): A Case Study on Coca-ColaÃ¢â¬ . We were really unable to collect enough information from due to their official restrictions. Many things were so confidential that we were not entitled to access there. Beside this we have faced the following hindrances in preparing this report: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lack of knowledge and experience Ã¢â¬ ¢ Short of time Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lack of computer facilities Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lack of sufficient privileges Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lack of communication facilitiesStrategic management is the process of specifying an organization's objectives, developing policies and plans to achieve these objectives, and allocating resources so as to implement the plans. It is the highest level of managerial activity, usually performed by the company's Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and executive team. It provides overall direction to the whole enterprise. International strategic management is a comprehensive and ongoing management planning process aimed at formulating and implementing strategies that enable a firm to complete effectively internationally.The process of developing a particular international strategy is often referred to as strategic planning. Strategic Management is the study of function and responsibilities of senior management. Five Essential Parts of Strategic Management Goal-setting Goal-setting enables a firm to articulate its vision: identify what needs to be accomplished, define short-and long-term objectives, and relate them to what the organization needs to do. Analysis Analysis guides to collect and consider information so that a firm understands the situation.Assess external environments and internal situations to identify the strengths and weakness of the organization and the opportuniti es and threats face to reach the goals. Strategy Formulation To determine a strategy, the firm reflects prioritize, develop options, and make decisions. Review the results of the analysis, identify the issues that a firm implementing partners need to address, and prioritize them in terms of their urgency and magnitude. Use these results to design alternative strategies and plans that address the key strategic issues.Strategy Implementation To implement the strategy, assemble the necessary resources and apply them. Put the chosen plans into practice, marshal the resources and commitments necessary for moving ahead, tap existing capacity and/or build new capacity, and seek to achieve results. Strategy Monitoring Monitoring allows checking the progress toward achieving the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and assessing whether any changes in the environment necessitate alternatives to the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy. Modify plans and actions to adjust to the impact of changing in the operating environme nt.SIGNIFICANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Strategic management integrates the knowledge and experience gained in various functional areas. It helps to understand and make sense of complex interaction in various areas of management. It helps in understanding how policies are formulated and in creating appreciation of complexities of environment that the senior management faces in policy formulation. Managers need to begin by gaining an understanding of the business environment and to in control. They should know to manage and understand information technology, which is changing the face of business.As public and common investors own and more companies managers need to acquire skills to maximize shareholder value. To have/take a strategic perspective, managers should foresee the future and track changes in customer expectation. Intuitive, logic reasoning is required for proper decision- making. Significance of Strategic As corporate are becoming more integrated with the public life, cor porate governance is becoming important which Management manager may have to practice. To the shape the Its helps to increase Future of business the productivity Effective strategic idea To Makes discipline Mangers and employer areTo make control innovative and ItÃ¢â¬â¢s decentralized the Page 7 Management To makes forward s Issues in Strategic Management Decision Making Ã¢â¬ ¢ While making a decision the company might have different people at different periods of time. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Decision requires judgments; personal related factors are important in decision-making. Hence decision ma y differs as person change. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Decisions are not taken individually, but often there is a task in decisions which could be Individual Vs Group decision making. There will be a difference between the individual and group decision-making. On what Criteria a company should make its decision, for evaluation of the efficiency & effectiveness of the decision making process, a company has to set its obje ctives which serves as main bench mark. Ã¢â¬ ¢ 3 Major Criteria in decision Making areÃ¢â¬â a. The concept of Maximization. b. The concept of satisfying. c. The concept of instrumentalism. Based on the concept chosen the strategic decisions will differ. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Generally decision-making process is logical and there will be rationality in decision-making. When it comes to Strategic decision making point of view there would be proper evaluation & then exercising a choice from various available alternative resources, which leads to attain the objectives in a best possible way. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Creativity in decision-making is required when there is a complete situation & the Decision taken must be original & different. Ã¢â¬ ¢ There could be variability in decision-making based on the situation & Circumstances. International strategic management results in the development of various international strategies, which are comprehensive frameworks for achieving a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s fundamentals goals .Conceptually, there are many similarities between developing a strategy for competing in a single country and developing one for competing in multiple counties. In both cases, the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic planners must answer the same fundamental questionsÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ ¢ What products and/or services does the firm intend to sell? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Where and how will to make those products or services? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Where and how will it sell them? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Where and how will it acquire the necessary resources? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How does it expect to outperform its competitors? But developing an international strategy is far more complex than developing a domestic one.Because managers developing a strategy for a domestic firm must deal with one Company national government, one currency, one accounting system, one political and legal system and usually a single language and a comparatively homogeneous culture. But managers responsible for developing a strategy for an international firm must understand and deal with multiple governments, multiple currencies, multiple political and legal system, and variety of language and cultures. Various Roles of Strategic Management Senior management plays an important role in Strategic Management.Role of Board of Directors: Board of Directors is the supreme Authority in a company. They are the owners/ shareholders/ lenders. They are the ones who direct and responsible for the governance of the company. The Company act and other laws blind them and their actions & they sometimes do get involved in operational issues. Professionals on the B. O. D help to get new ideas, perspectives and provide guidance. They are the link between the company and the environment. Role of C. E. O: Chief Executive Officer is the most important Strategist and responsible for all aspects from formulations/Implementation to review of Strategic Management.He is the leader, motivator & Builder who forms a link between company and the board of directors and responsible for managi ng the external environment and its relationship. Role of Entrepreneur: They are independent in thought and action and they set / start up a new business. A Company can promote the entrepreneurial spirit and this can be internal attitude of an organization. They provide a sense of direction and are active in implementation. Role of Senior Management: They are answerable to B. O. Directors and The C. E.O as they would look after Strategic Management a responsible of certain areas / parts of terms. Role of SBU Ã¢â¬â Level Executives: They Co-ordinate with other SBUÃ¢â¬â¢s & with Senior Management. They are more focused on their product / burners line. They are more on the implementation role. Role of Corporate Planning Staff: It provides administrative support tools and techniques and is a Co-ordinate function. Role of Consultant: Often Consultants may be hired for a specified new business or Expertise even to get an unbiased opinion on the business & the Strategy.Role of Middle Level Managers: They form an important link in strategizing & Implementation. They are not actively involved in formulation of Strategies and they are developed to be the future management. COMPANY OVERVIEW The Coca-Cola Company (Coca-Cola) is a leading manufacturer, distributor and marketer of Non-alcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups, in the world. The company owns or licenses more than 400 brands, including diet and light beverages, waters, juice and juice drinks, teas, coffees, and energy and sports drinks. The company operates in more than 200 countries.Approximately 74% of its products are sold outside of the US. The company is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia and employs 71,000 people as of September 2006. The company recorded revenues of $24,088 million during the fiscal year ended December 2006, an increase of 4. 3% over 2005. The increase in revenue was primarily due to increase in sales of Unit cases of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products from approximately 20. 6 billion unit cases of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s Products in 2005 to approximately 21. 4 billion unit cases in 2006, the increase in the Price and Product/geographic mix also boosted the revenue growth.The company-wide gallon Page 12 13. Strategic Management Issues of Coca-Cola Company sales and unit case volume both grew 4% in 2006 when compared to 2005. The operating profit of the company was $6,308 million during fiscal year 2006, an increase of 3. 7% over 2005. The net profit was $5,080 million in fiscal year 2006, an increase of 4. 3% over 2005. HISTORY OF COCA-COLA Coca-Cola was first introduced by John Smyth Pemberton, a pharmacist, in the year 1886 in Atlanta, Georgia when he invented caramel-colored syrup in a three-legged brass kettle in his backyard.He first Ã¢â¬Å"distributedÃ¢â¬ the product by carrying it in a jug down the street to JacobÃ¢â¬â¢s Pharmacy and customers bought the drink for five cents at the soda fountain. Carbonated water was teamed with the new syrup, whether by acc ident or otherwise, producing a drink that was proclaimed Ã¢â¬Å"delicious and refreshingÃ¢â¬ , a theme that continues to echo today wherever Coca-Cola is enjoyed. Dr. PembertonÃ¢â¬â¢s partner and book-keeper, Frank M. Robinson, suggested the name and penned Ã¢â¬Å"Coca-ColaÃ¢â¬ in the unique flowing script that is famous worldwide even today. He suggested that Ã¢â¬Å"the two Cs would look well in advertising. The first newspaper ad for Coca-Cola soon appeared in The Atlanta Journal, inviting thirsty citizens to try Ã¢â¬Å"the new and popular soda fountain drink. Ã¢â¬ Hand-painted oil cloth signs reading Ã¢â¬Å"Coca-ColaÃ¢â¬ appeared on store awnings, with the suggestions Ã¢â¬Å"DrinkÃ¢â¬ added to inform passersby that the new beverage was for soda fountain refreshment. By the year 1886, sales of Coca-Cola averaged nine drinks per day. The first year, Dr. Pemberton sold 25 gallons of syrup, shipped in bright red wooden kegs. Red has been a distinctive color associate d with the soft drink ever since. For his efforts, Dr. Pemberton grossed $50 and spent $73. 6 on advertising. Dr. Pemberton never realized the potential of the beverage he created. He gradually sold portions of his business to various partners and, just prior to his death in 1888, sold his remaining interest in Coca-Cola to Asa G. Candler, an entrepreneur from Atlanta. By the year 1891, Mr. Candler proceeded to buy additional rights and acquire complete ownership and control of the Coca-Cola business. Within four years, his merchandising flair had helped expand consumption of Coca-Cola to every state and territory after which he liquidated his pharmaceutical business and focused his full attention on the soft drink.With his brother, John S. Candler, John PembertonÃ¢â¬â¢s former partner Frank Robinson and two other associates, Mr. Candler formed a Georgia corporation named the Coca-Cola Company. The trademark Ã¢â¬Å"Coca-Cola,Ã¢â¬ used in the marketplace since 1886, was register ed in the United States Patent Office on January 31, 1893. The business continued to grow, and in 1894, the first syrup manufacturing plant outside Atlanta was opened in Dallas, Texas. Others were opened in Chicago, Illinois, and Los Angeles, California, the following year.In 1895, three years after The Coca-Cola CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s incorporation, Mr. Candler announced in his annual report to share owners that Ã¢â¬Å"Coca- Cola is now drunk in every state and territory in the United States. Ã¢â¬ As demand for Coca-Cola increased, the Company quickly outgrew its facilities. A new building erected in 1898 was the first headquarters building devoted exclusively to the production of syrup and the management of the business. Strategic Management Issues of Coca-Cola Company the year 1919, the Coca-Cola Company was sold to a group of investors for $25 million.Robert W. Woodruff became the President of the Company in the year 1923 and his more than sixty years of leadership took the busines s to unsurpassed heights of commercial success, making Coca-Cola one of the most recognized and valued brands around the world. HISTORY OF BOTTLING Coca-Cola originated as a soda fountain beverage in 1886 selling for five cents a glass. Early growth was impressive, but it was only when a strong bottling system developed that Coca-Cola became the world-famous brand it is today.Year 1894: A modest start for a bold idea In 1894 the Coca-Cola Company is in a candy store in Vicksburg, Mississippi, brisk sales of the new fountain beverage called Coca-Cola impressed the store's owner, Joseph A. Biedenharn. He began bottling Coca-Cola to sell, using a common glass bottle called a Hutchinson. Biedenharn sent a case to Asa Griggs Candler, who owned the Company. Candler thanked him but took no action. One of his nephews already had urged that Coca-Cola be bottled, but Candler focused on fountain sales. In 21st century the Coca-Cola bottling system grew up with roots deeply planted in local com munities.This heritage serves the Company well today as consumers seek brands that honor local identity and the distinctiveness of local markets. As was true a century ago, strong locally based relationships between Coca-Cola bottlers, customers and communities are the foundation on which the entire business grows. Page 15 16. Strategic Management Issues of Coca-Cola Company 1920s and 30s Ã¢â¬ ¦ 1950s Ã¢â¬ ¦ Packaging 1916 Ã¢â¬ ¦ International innovations expansion Birth of the contour bottle VISION OF COCA-COLA COMPANY Our mission declares our purpose as a company.It serves as the standard against which we weigh our actions and decisions. It is the foundation of our Manifesto. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To refresh the world in body, mind and spirit Ã¢â¬ ¢ To inspire moments of optimism through our brands and our actions Ã¢â¬ ¢ To create value and make a difference everywhere we engage. Page 16 MISSION OF COCA-COLA COMPANY To create consumer products, services and communications, customer service and bottling system strategies, processes and tools in order to create competitive advantage and deliver superior value to; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Consumers as a superior beverage experience Consumers as an opportunity to grow profits through the use of finished drinks Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bottlers as an opportunity to grow profits in volumes Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bottlers as a trademark enhancement and positive economic value added Ã¢â¬ ¢ Suppliers as an opportunity to make reasonable profits when creating real value-added in an environment of system-wide team work, flexible business system and continuous improvement Ã¢â¬ ¢ Indian society in the form of a contribution to economic and social development. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Refresh the WorldÃ¢â¬ ¦In body, mind, and spirit Ã¢â¬ ¢ Inspire Moments of OptimismÃ¢â¬ ¦ Through our brands and our actions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Create Value and Make a DifferenceÃ¢â¬ ¦ Everywhere we engage. VISION FOR SUSTAINABLE GROWTH Our vision guides every aspect of our business by describing what we need to accompl ish in order to continue achieving sustainable growth. People: Being a great place to work where people are inspired to be the best they can be. Portfolio: Bringing to the world a portfolio of quality beverage brands that anticipate and satisfy people's desires and needs.Partners: Nurturing a winning network of customers and suppliers, together we create mutual, enduring value. Planet: Being a responsible citizen that makes a difference by helping build and support sustainable communities. Profit: Maximizing long-term return to shareowners while being mindful of our overall responsibilities. QUALITY POLICY Coca-Cola Company follows different quality standard for different countries across the globe. Coca-Cola Company has a long-standing commitment to protecting the consumers whose trust and confidence in its products is the bedrock of its success.In order to ensure that consumers stay informed about the global quality of all Coca-Cola products sold in World, Coca-Cola products carry a quality assurance seal on them. The Ã¢â¬ËOne Quality WorldwideÃ¢â¬â¢ assurance seal appears on the entire range of Coca-Cola CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s beverages. CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL ORGANOGRAM BRANDS OF COCA-COLA Coca-Cola ZeroÃ ® has been one of the most successful product launch hes in Coca-ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s history. In 2007, Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s sold nearly 450 million cases globally. Put into perspective, that's roughly the same size as Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s total business in the Philippines, one of our top 15 markets.As of September 2008, Coca-Cola Zero is available in more than 100 countries. Energy Drinks For those with a high-intensity approach to life, Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s brands of Energy Drinks contain ingredients such as ginseng extract, guarana extract, and caffeine and B vitamins. Juices/Juice Drinks We bring innovation to the goodness of juice in Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s more than 20 juice and juice drink brands, offering both adults and children nutritious, refreshing and flavorful beverages Soft Drinks Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s dozens of soft drink brands provide flavor and refreshment in a variety of choices.From the original Coca-Cola to most recent introductions, soft drinks from The Coca-Cola Company are both icons and innovators in the beverage industry. Sports Drinks Carbohydrates, fluids, and electrolytes team together in Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s Sports Drinks, providing rapid hydration and terrific taste for fitness-seekers at any level Tea and Coffee Bottled and canned teas and coffees provide consumers' favorite drinks in convenient take- anywhere packaging, satisfying both traditional tea drinkers and today's growing coffee culture.Water Smooth and essential, our Waters and Water Beverages offer hydration in its purest form. Other Drinks So much more than soft drinks, Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s brands also include milk products, soup, and more so you can choose a Coca Cola Company product anytime, anywhere for nutrition, refreshment or other needs. CONSUMER CHOICE AT A GLANCE Limca Common Fanta Basically Preferred by Maaza also Ladies and drink. Kids Sprite not clearly Kinley Soda Mostly those who defines consume liquor Factors affecting the strategic management issues of domestic and international operations of Coca-Cola Company.Language| English used as a second language| Use the local language in many situations required| Cultures| Relatively homogeneous| Quite diverse, both between countries and within countries| Politics| Unstable| Often volatile and of decisive importance| Economy| Underdeveloped| Wide variations among countries and among regions within countries| Governmental interferences| Reasonably Predictable| Often extensive and subject to rapid change| Labor| Skilled labors are not available| Skilled labors are often scarce, requiring trainings or redesigned of production methods| Financing| Moderately developed financial markets| Often poorly developed financial markets; capital flows subject to governmental control| Market Researc h| Data collect is not very easy| Sometimes data difficult and expensive to collect| Advertising| Media are available with some restrictions| Media limited; many restrictions; low literacy rates rule out of prints media in some countries| Money| | Must change from one currency to another| Transportations| It is not developed| Often Adequate| Control| Always a problem| A worse problem| Labor Relations| Collective bargaining, layoff of workers| Layoff of workers often not possible, may have mandatory participation in management; workers may seek political change rather than collective bargaining| Factors affecting the strategic management issuesThere are some factors which affect strategic of Coca-Cola Company in case of international operation. Language is one of the main considerations when it does business domestically, they generally domestic language. But when it does business outside the country it follows Polycentric policy that is it used different language in different countr ies. Side by side culture is relatively homogeneous in domestic operation and quite diverse, both between countries and within countries. Political stability and policy also be considered by the Coca-Cola Company. Control function is done by centrally in case of domestically but when it goes beyond outside, it must work a tightrope between over centralizing and losing control to much decentralizing.Labor is another consideration because their skills and collective bargaining that is labor relation differ from country to country. Advertising in domestic country is very easy because domestic cultures are known to them. But in case of international operation it faces many problems for advertising such as shortage of media, huge advertising cost and so forth. However economy is relatively uniform in domesticÃ¢â¬â¢s country but outsides, it faces wide variation among countries and among region within country. In case of Coco-Cola Company the market research data is easy to collect but when it goes to foreign sometimes face difficult and expensive to collect data.At last we see that government interference in case of domestically, it is minimal and reasonably predictable but in international operation it is often expensive and subject to rapid change. Strategic Alternatives of Multinational Companies Multinationals corporations typically adopt one of four strategic alternatives in their attempt to balance the three goals of global efficiencies, multinational flexibility, and worldwide learning. There four strategies are as followsÃ¢â¬â Home Replication Strategy In this strategy, a firm utilizes the core competency or firm- specific advantage it developed at home as its main competitive weapon in the foreign markets that it enters. That is, it takes what it does exceptionally well in its home market and attempts to duplicate it in foreign markets.Multi-domestic Strategy It is the second alternative available to international firm. A multi-domestic corporation vi ews itself as a collection of relatively independent operating subsidiaries, each of which focuses on a specific domestic market. Global Strategy It is the third alternative available for international firms. A global corporations views the world as a single marketplace and has as its primary goal the creation of standardized goods and services that will address the needs of customers worldwide. Transnational Strategy The transnational corporation attempts to combine the benefits of global scale efficiencies with the benefits of local responsiveness.Strategies for Coca Cola Company These four strategy are shown in the following figureÃ¢â¬â Home Multi-domestic Replication Strategy Strategy v Transnational Global Strategy Strategy From these four strategies Coca-Cola Company follow the Multi-domestic strategies. They produce their products independently in different countries. All countries product are not same. They produce their products by following different strategy for differ ent countries, based on the internal and external environment of the country. Coca-Cola Company developed their strategy by considering the nature of the people of different countyÃ¢â¬â¢s people, culture, status and so many other related factors.Behind the reasons of following of this strategy may be that, different countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ economies of scale for production, distribution, and marketing are low, side by side cost of coordination between the parent corporation and its various foreign subsidiaries is high. Because each subsidiary in a multi-domestic corporation must be responsive to the local market, the parent company usually delegates considerable power and authority to managers of its subsidiaries in various host countries. Levels of Strategies followed by Coca-Cola Company There are three levels of strategies followed by Coca-Cola Company. This may be stated as the following Figure: Levels of Strategies Corporate Level Strategy Corporate level strategy attempts to defin e the domain of business the firm intends to operate.Corporate level strategy fundamentally is concerned with the selection of businesses in which the company should compete and with the development and coordination of that portfolio of businesses. A firm might adopt any of three forms of corporate strategy: Ã¢â¬ ¢ A single business strategy Ã¢â¬ ¢ Related diversification strategy and Ã¢â¬ ¢ Unrelated diversification strategy. Coca-Cola Company follows related diversification strategy that is calls for the firm to operate in several different but fundamentally related businesses. Each of its operations linked to the others Coca-Cola characters, the Coca-Cola logo, and a theme of wholesomeness and a reputation for providing high quality family products.Coca-Cola Company follows this strategy because it has several advantages. At first, the firm depends less on a single products so it is less vulnerable to competitive or economic threats. Secondly, related diversification may produ ce economies of scale for a firm. Thirdly, related diversification may allow a firm to use technology or expertise developed in one market to enter a second market more cheaply and easily. Corporate level strategies of Coca-Cola Company is following Business Unit Level Strategy A strategic business unit may be a division, product line, or other profit center that can be planned independently from the other business units of the firm.Corporate strategy deals with the overall whereas business strategy focuses on specific business, subsidiaries or operating units within the firm. Business seeks to answer the question Ã¢â¬Å"how should we compete in each market we have chosen to enter? Ã¢â¬ The firms develop unique business strategy for each of its strategic business units, or it may pursue the same business strategy for all of them. The three basic business strategy are differentiation, overall cost leadership and focus. Coca-Cola Company uses the differentiation strategy effectivel y. Functional Level Strategy The functional strategies attempts to answer to question Ã¢â¬Å"How we manage the function? The functional level of the organization is the level of the operating divisions and departments. The strategic issues at the functional level are related to business processes and the value chain. Functional level strategies in marketing, finance, operations, human resources, and R;D involve the development and coordination of resources through which business unit level strategies can be executed efficiently and effectively. Functional units of an organization are involved in higher level strategies by providing input into the business unit level and corporate level strategy, such as providing information on resources and capabilities on which the higher level strategies can be based.Once the higher-level strategy is developed, the functional units translate it into discrete action-plans that each department or division must accomplish for the strategy to succeed . E-COMMERCE OF COCA-COLA COMPANY Good points of Coca-Cola Company Ã¢â¬ ¢ Brand Promotion Ã¢â¬ ¢ Attractive products selection Ã¢â¬ ¢ Look and feel 8 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Provision of multimedia product, catalogue pages Ã¢â¬ ¢ Personal attention Ã¢â¬ ¢ Community relationships Weak points of Coca-Cola Company Ã¢â¬ ¢ Performance and service: that is not easy navigation, shopping and purchasing, and prompt shipping and delivery. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Discount pricing is not being offered. Developing International Strategies Developing international strategies is not a one-dimensional process.. Simply put, put strategy formulations deciding what to do and strategy implementation is actually doing it.Firms generally carry out international strategic management in two broad strategies- Strategy Formulation In strategies formulation, a firm establishes its goals and strategic plan that will lead to the achievement of their mission goals. In international strategy formulation, managers develop, refine, and agre e on which markets of enter (or exit) and how best to compete in each. Strategy Implementation A firm develops the tactics for achieving the formulated international strategies is known as strategy implementation. Strategy implementation is usually achieved via the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s design, the work of its employees, and its control systems and processes. Every Multinational Companies are developing their international strategies so that they can survive in the complex business situation.Now the modern market is fully globalized and as a result itÃ¢â¬â¢s really difficult for every multinational organization in the right track. In such aspect the importance of strategy formulation and strategy implementation played an important role. Side by side there is some important process which helps in international strategy formulation. Developing International Strategies in Aspects of Coca-Cola Company TCCQS is the Coca-Cola systemÃ¢â¬â¢s branded quality management system. It helps c oordinate and guide our activities to ensure quality in everything they do. For entering in to a new market and be survive in the market it always ready to cope with change. Different government policy, economic condition, political situation, barrier and ban are associated with different market.Coca-Cola CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s basic strategies are to develop a mission statement for entering a new market depending on a fully fledged market survey. Identifying external and internal environment strength, weakness, opportunity, and threats is the next management strategies. Depending on the scope and opportunity the company will go forward as well as try to resolve the weakness and threats. After entering into a new market Coca-Cola Company try to achieve strategic goals and guide its daily activities with proper observation. Lastly this company establishes a control framework for controlling the managerial and organizational systems and process as well. This company believes that, for takin g a position in a new country is fully depends on the good formulation strategies and keeping it.To do business outside the local market is depending on the quality control of the product and quality ensures the customer perception and the choice for consuming this products. Through this model, we see that the company is first take the response of customers and consumers through market survey. Then the management accumulates the best quality resources for making their products. This process includes- Ã¢â¬ ¢ Skilled employee involvement for production and quality control Ã¢â¬ ¢ High quality materials for production Ã¢â¬ ¢ Up to date technology for quality control Ã¢â¬ ¢ Effective methods and newly developed strategies They will follow some sequential steps in developing the international strategy formulation.Those steps help the Coca- Cola Company to enter and establish their business in multinational base. They are following multi-domestic strategies for their produced product a s well as their marketing system. The analysis of different levels of strategic formulating of Coca-Cola Company is given below. Developing the Mission Statement Coca-Cola Company begins the international strategic planning process by creating a mission statement, which clarifies the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose, value, and directions. The mission statement is often used as a way of communicating with internal and external constituents and stakeholders about the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic direction. Mission statement of Coca-Cola CompanyThis company focused on driving growth in of their business in selected profitable and emerging categories. To develop, implement and continuously improve the integrated management systems in a culture of continuous improvement which: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Directs the continual up-gradation for efficient and environment friendly manufacturing technology. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Monitor and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of all business processes. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Promotes professi onal and flexible work environment, teamwork and innovation through employee participation and process ownership. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Drives customer orientation at all levels within the organization. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Monitor and economize the Cost of Quality.Comments on mission Statements (In terms of how they support the strategies) The vision statement of this company supports the existing strategies that are (generic strategy) that Coca Cola needs to pursue is that of differentiation. In their current vision and mission statements, the company says it aims to be a low cost leader, yet through their analysis of the strategic direction, the company needs to adopt a generic strategy of differentiation. This will allow Coca cola to do two things; 1. Increase unit sales 2. Gain buyer loyalty However, at the expense of sounding simplistic, it is necessary that the company communicate its differentiation to its customers, otherwise these two advantages will not avail themselves.Initially Coca cola will nee d to adopt a focused differentiation approach, which means that they should selectively choose which markets will profit them the most and then target only those markets until such provisions are in place from where the company is able to expand its target base. After which they should opt for a broad differentiation generic strategy. COCA-COLA COMPANY, THE SWOT ANALYSIS SWOT ANALYSIS The Coca-Cola Company (Coca-Cola) is a leading manufacturer, distributor and marketer of Non-alcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups, in the world. Coca-Cola has a strong brand name and brand portfolio. Business-Week and Inter brand, a branding consultancy, recognize Coca-Cola as one of the leading brands in their top 100 global brands ranking in 2008.The Business Week-Interbred valued Coca- Cola at $67,000 million in 2008. Coca-Cola ranks well ahead of its close competitor Pepsi which has a ranking of 22 having a brand value of $12,690 million The CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s strong brand value facilitates cus tomer recall and allows Coca-Cola to Page 37 38. Strategic Management Issues of Coca-Cola Company penetrate markets. However, the company is threatened by intense competition which could have an adverse impact on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s market share. Analyzing the primary competitor and identifying their Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT Analysis) help determine target markets, marketing plan, and customer service, sales forecasting and sales planning.Examining the following will assist in the competitive analysis: Identify the level of rivalry among competing sellers in the industry Review strategies of companies to encourage customers to switch from a competitor Analyze ease of entry for new competitors Determine bargaining power for suppliers of key materials and components Determine bargaining power for buyers of the product SWOT Analysis represents the analysis of the following four thingsÃ¢â¬â STRENGTHS Distribution network: The Company has a strong and r eliable distribution network. The network is formed on the basis of the time of consumption and the amount of sales yielded by a particular customer in one transaction. It has a distribution network consisting of a number of efficient salesmen, 700,000 retail outlets and 8000 distributors.The distribution fleet includes different modes of distribution, from 10-tonne trucks to open-bay three wheelers that can navigate through narrow alleyways of Indian cities and trademarked tricycles and pushcarts. Strong Brands: The products produced and marketed by the Company have a strong brand image. People all around the world recognize the brands marketed by the Company. Strong brand names like Coca-Cola, Fanta, Limca, and Maaza add up to the brand name of the Coca-Cola Company as a whole. The red and white Coca-Cola is one of the very few things that are recognized by people all over the world. Coca-Cola has been named the world's top brand for a fourth consecutive year in a survey by consul tancy Inter brand. It was estimated that the Coca-Cola brand was worth $70. 45billion.Low Cost of Operations: The production, marketing and distribution systems are very efficient due to forward planning and maintenance of consistency of operations which minimizes wastage of both time and resources leads to lowering of costs. WEAKNESSES Low Export Levels: The brands produced by the company are brands produced worldwide thereby making the export levels very low. In India, there exists a major controversy concerning pesticides and other harmful chemicals in bottled products including Coca-Cola. Small Scale Sector Reservations Limit Ability To Invest And Achieve Economies Of Scale: The CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations are carried out on a small scale and due to Government restrictions and Ã¢â¬Ëred-tapismÃ¢â¬â¢, the Company finds it very difficult to invest in technological advancements and achieve economies of scale. OPPORTUNITIESLarge Domestic Markets: The domestic market for the produ cts of the Company is very high as compared to any other soft drink. Coca-Cola India claims a 58 per cent share of the soft drinks market; this includes a 42 per cent share of the cola market. Other products account for 16 per cent market share, chiefly led by Limca. The company appointed 50,000 new outlets in the first two months of this year, as part of its plans to cover one lakh outlets for the coming summer season and this also covered 3,500 new villages. In Bangalore, Coca- Cola amounts for 74% of the beverage market. Export Potential: The Company can come up with new products which are not manufactured abroad, like Maaza etc and export them to foreign nations.It can come up with strategies to eliminate apprehension from the minds of the people towards the Coke products produced in India so that there will be a considerable amount of exports and it is yet another opportunity to broaden future prospects and cater to the global markets rather than just domestic market. Higher In come among People: Development of India as a whole has lead to an increase in the per capita income thereby causing an increase in disposable income. Unlike olden times, people now have the power of buying goods of their choice without having to worry much about the flow of their income. The beverage industry can take advantage of such a situation and enhance their sales. THREATSImports: For example: As India is developing at a fast pace, the per capita income has increased over the years and a majority of the people is educated, the export levels have gone high. People understand trade to a large extent and the demand for foreign goods has increased over the years. If consumers shift onto imported beverages rather than have beverages manufactured within the country, it could pose a threat to the Indian beverage industry as a whole in turn affecting the sales of the Company. Tax and Regulatory Sector: The tax system in India is accompanied by a variety of regulations at each stage o n the consequence from production to consumption.When a license is issued, the production capacity is mentioned on the license and every time the production capacity needs to be increased, the license poses a problem. Renewing or updating a license every now and then is difficult. Therefore, this can limit the growth of the Company and pose problems. Slowdown In Rural Demand: The rural market may be alluring but it is not without its problems: Low per capita disposable incomes that is half the urban disposable income; large number of daily wage earners, acute dependence on the vagaries of the monsoon; seasonal consumption linked to harvests and festivals and special occasions; poor roads; power problems; and inaccessibility to conventional advertising media.All these problems might lead to a slowdown in the demand for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products. COCA-COLA COMPANY, THE PEST ANALYSIS A scan of the external macro-environment in which the firm operates can be expressed in terms of th e following factors: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Political Ã¢â¬ ¢ Economic Ã¢â¬ ¢ Social Ã¢â¬ ¢ Technological The acronym PEST (or sometimes rearranged as Ã¢â¬Å"STEPÃ¢â¬ ) is used to describe a framework for the analysis of these macro environmental factors. A PEST analysis fits into an overall environmental scan, which consists of significant political, economic, social and technological analysis for a firm to reach their desirable position or to attain the goals and objectives.For operating a business worldwide it is too much important, because its analysis represent the overall environmental scanning as shown in the following diagram: Environmental Scan / External Analysis Internal Analysis / Macro environment Microenvironment | P. E. S. T. Coca-Cola CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s perform/ operate their business unit in different country based on the developing of the PEST analysis. The PEST analysis of Coca-Cola Company is as followingÃ¢â¬â Political Factors It is one of the significant parts of a compa ny where, in which country they operate their business unit. Political factors include government regulations and legal issues and define both formal and informal rules under which the firm must operate. Some examples include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ tax policy Ã¢â¬ ¢ employment laws Ã¢â¬ ¢ environmental regulations Ã¢â¬ ¢ trade restrictions and tariffs political stability Economic Factors Another most imperative element for PEST analysis is economic factors. Economic factor affects the purchasing power of potential customers and the firm's cost of capital. The following are examples of factors in the macro-economy: Ã¢â¬ ¢ economic growth Ã¢â¬ ¢ interest rates Ã¢â¬ ¢ exchange rates Ã¢â¬ ¢ inflation rate Social Factors Social factors include the demographic and cultural aspects of the external macro environment. These factors affect customer needs and the size of potential markets. Some social factors include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ health consciousness Ã¢â¬ ¢ population growth rate Ã¢â¬ ¢ age distributio n Ã¢â¬ ¢ career attitudes Ã¢â¬ ¢ emphasis on safetyTechnological Factors Technological factors can lower barriers to entry, reduce minimum efficient production levels, and influence outsourcing decisions. Some technological factors include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ R;D activity Ã¢â¬ ¢ automation Ã¢â¬ ¢ technology incentives Ã¢â¬ ¢ rate of technological change Develop Strategic and tactical goals and plans of Coca-Cola Company After completion of SWOT and PEST analysis as context, international strategic planning is largely framed by the setting of strategic goals. Based on different market situation as well as customers response this company will set up their tactical goals for being a strong position in the global market place.Strategic goals are the major objectives that the Company wants to accomplish through pursuing a particular course of action. The basic objective of set up this strategic and tactical plan and goals is to exploit the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and environmental opportunitie s, neutralize external threats and overcome the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s weakness. Depending on those vital factors this Coca- Cola Company is develop a Control Framework for their overall controlling of management. Through this framework managerial and organizational systems are observed, monitor, and processed. Findings By preparing this report about the strategic management issues of multinational companies (MNCS), the case study on the Coca-Cola Company, we get some important things.These findings are as followsÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ ¢ Coca-Cola Enterprises is the world's largest marketer, producer and distributor of Coca-Cola products. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Coca-Cola was first introduced by John Smyth Pemberton, a pharmacist, in the year 1886 in Atlanta, Georgia when he invented caramel-colored syrup in a three-legged brass kettle in his backyard. Ã¢â¬ ¢ It operates in 46 U. S. states and Canada, and is the exclusive Coca-Cola bottler for all of Belgium, continental France, Great Britain, Luxembourg, Monaco a nd the Netherlands. Coca-Cola is the nonalcoholic bottled beverages. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The company owns or licenses more than 400 brands, including diet and light beverages, waters, juice and juice drinks, teas, coffees, and energy and sports drinks. The company operates in more than 200 countries Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strategic management integrates the knowledge and experience gained in various functional areas. Ã¢â¬ ¢ 3 Major Criteria in decision Making areÃ¢â¬âthe concept of Maximization, the concept of satisfying, the concept of instrumentalism. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The vision of Coca-Cola Company is to refresh the world in body, mind and spirit Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bringing to the world a portfolio of quality beverage brands that anticipate and satisfy people's desires and needs. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Coca-Cola ZeroÃ ® has been one of the most successful product launch hes in Coca-ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s history Ã¢â¬ ¢ It has soft drinks, energy drinks, juice drinks, sports drinks, tea and coffee, water and other drinks. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Coca-Cola Comp any follows the multi-domestic strategy for operating their business. After entering into a new market Coca-Cola Company try to achieve strategic goals and guide its daily activities with proper observation. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Good points of Coca-Cola Company are brand promotion, alternative products selections, Provision of multimedia product, catalogue pages and so on. CONCLUSION Being in such a tense competition (just like the brand Coca- Cola), Coca-Cola should not take the direct and tough attack upon it. There is no good to either side. The best way is to keep a peaceful relationship with it and always compare with others; we should find their disadvantages and show our advantages on this aspect. Then by and by, the people would think ours is betted Of course the most important rule is to improve ourselves to meet the consumers.An organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic thinking is governed by the situation prevalent in its external environment. The external environment comprises of the strategi c moves adopted by the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s competitors. The organization has to carefully study these moves and accordingly devise strategies to gain competitive advantage. For the same, the organization needs to conduct an industry and competitive analysis. The paper discusses the steps and processes involved in the same. In formulating business strategy, managers must consider the strategies of the firm's competitors. While in highly fragmented commodity industries the moves of any single competitor may be less important, in concentrated industries competitor